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  • Author or Editor: R. Nair x
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Abstract  

Let S be a countable semigroup acting in a measure-preserving fashion (gTg) on a measure space (Ω, A, µ). For a finite subset A of S, let |A| denote its cardinality. Let (Ak)k=1 be a sequence of subsets of S satisfying conditions related to those in the ergodic theorem for semi-group actions of A. A. Tempelman. For A-measureable functions f on the measure space (Ω, A, μ) we form for k ≥ 1 the Templeman averages

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$\pi _k (f)(x) = \left| {A_k } \right|^{ - 1} \sum\nolimits_{g \in A_k } {T_g f(x)}$$ \end{document}
and set Vqf(x) = (Σk≥1|πk+1(f)(x) − πk(f)(x)|q)1/q when q ∈ (1, 2]. We show that there exists C > 0 such that for all f in L1(Ω, A, µ) we have µ({x ∈ Ω: Vqf(x) > λ}) ≤ C(∫Ω | f | dµ/λ). Finally, some concrete examples are constructed.

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Abstract

Thermal stability of solution-cast blends of poly(vinylchloride) and NR-b-PU block copolymers of three different chain extender diols was studied by thermogravimetry. Thermal degradation of individual components and their blends were investigated with special reference to blend ratio. As the block copolymer content in the blends increased their thermal stability was also found to increase. Enhanced thermal stability of PVC is believed due to the favorable interaction with PVC and the PU hard segments of the block copolymer. DTG curves were used for the determination of different stages involved in the degradation. Activation energy for degradation was determined from Coats–Redfern plot.

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Abstract  

Radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the determination of the individual lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes, LDH-1 and LDH-2 have been developed. LDH-1 can be measured in the range of 5–100 ng and LDH-2 in the range of 5–80 ng, if there is no significant cross reactivity. Immunization of several rabbits with LDH-1 and LDH-2 isoenzymes reveals that some animals do not produce antisera to LDH-2 while those injected with LDH-1 generated antiserum in each case. The results of the binding studies suggest that a 50% binding that is recommended for RIA can be achieved with a titer value of 12000 dilution of the antisera. Cross reactivity studies indicate that LDH-1 cross reacts with the antisera to LDH-2 if its concentration is higher than 30 ng/ml of the RIA mixture while LDH-2 cross reacts with the antisera to LDH-1 only if its concentration exceeds 80 ng/ml.

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Ground water samples obtained from West Bengal, India were analyzed for total arsenic and its inorganic species contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Two anion exchange separation methods using Dowex 1X8 in chloride and acetate forms were standardized for the speciation of As(III) and As(V) using radiotracers. The method by Dowex 1X8 in the acetate form was validated using synthetic mixtures of As(III) and As(V), and applied to water samples; the species concentrations were determined by INAA. The accuracy of the INAA method was evaluated by analyzing the NRCC CRM DORM-2 for total arsenic.

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A study was conducted to estimate the thorium concentration in locally grown vegetables in high background radiation area (HBRA) of southern coastal regions of India. Locally grown vegetables were collected from HBRA of southern coastal regions of India. Thorium concentration was quantified using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at CIRUS reactor and counted using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. The annual intake of thorium was evaluated using the consumption data provided by National Nutrition Monitoring Board. The daily intake of 232Th from the four food categories (green leafy vegetables, others vegetables, roots and tubers, and fruits) ranged between 0.27 and 5.352 mBq d−1. The annual internal dose due to ingestion of thorium from these food categories was 46.8 × 10−8 for female and 58.6 × 10−8 Sv y−1 for male.

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Four plant parts (leaves, roots, fruits and seeds) of twenty samples of sixteen antidiabetic herbs including three commercially marketed capsules have been analyzed for 6 minor (Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 21 trace (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, V and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Further, Ni, Cd and Pb contents were determined by AAS. Elemental data were validated by simultaneously analyzing reference material (RM), MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs. Several elements such as Cr and V (1–2 μg/g), Rb (10–40 μg/g), Cs (80–300 ng/g), Se (∼100 ng/g) and Zn (25–60 μg/g) play an important role in diabetes mellitus. Interelemental linear correlations have been observed for Cu vs. Zn (r = 0.89) and Rb vs. Cs (r = 0.87). K/P ratio varies in a narrow range with a mean value of 6.2 ± 1.4. Toxic elements As and Hg were found in <1 μg/g whereas Cd and Pb were in ∼5 μg/g and <10 μg/g, respectively.

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Abstract  

A chemical neutron activation analysis method to determine trace amounts of palladium present in the uranium ores has been developed. Palladium was concentrated on an anionic exchanger to purify from large amounts of uranium, iron and copper that were present in the ore. The resin in which Pd was adsorbed was neutron irradiated and the activation product109Pd was assayed through its daughter109mAg by low energy photon spectrometry to estimate palladium. Both the 88 keV gamma-line and the 22 keV X-ray line (arising out of the internal transition of109mAg) were used to arrive at the concentration values by a standard comparison technique. A thin window Si(Li) detector and an HPGe detector were used for the radioactive assay. Detection limits and the advantage of using the X-ray line of Ag over that of the gamma-line were discussed. An absolute detection limit of 0.12·10−9 g could be arrived at by the use of the 22.10 keV X-ray line in an interference-free condition.

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Abstract  

A summary of k 0-based R&D work on neutron activation analysis (NAA), internal mono standard NAA (IM-NAA) and prompt gamma-ray NAA (PGNAA) is presented. The k 0-based NAA was standardized by characterizing irradiation sites of research reactors, validated using reference materials and applied to samples of different origin. Recently IM-NAA method was developed, validated for small and large size samples and applied for the analysis of large size as well as non-standard geometry samples. Studies on PGNAA included characterization of neutron beam, determinations of detection efficiency and prompt k 0-factors, and analytical applications.

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