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Summary

An isocratic RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB) with cetirizine hydrochloride (CTZ) and of ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB) with levo-cetirizine dihydrochloride (LCTZ) in combined solid dosage forms. Formulations containing AMB with CTZ (tablets) and AMB with LCTZ (capsules) are used as antihistaminic H1 blockers. Chromatography was performed on a 250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5-μm particle size, C18 (ODS) column with a 45:30:30 (v/v) mixture of 30 mM aqueous ammonium sulphate (pH 5.5), acetonitrile, and methanol as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1. The detection wavelength was 230 nm and analysis was performed at room temperature. Hydrochlorothiazide was used as internal standard for both formulations. Plots of drug-to-internal standard peakarea ratios (response factor) against respective concentrations were linear in the range 3 to 20 μg mL−1 for AMB and in the range 1 to 11 μg mL−1 for CTZ and LCTZ. The method was precise (RSD < 2) and accurate for analysis of both drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Statistical data and results from recovery studies were reported for both formulations.

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Frullania ramuligera , an overlooked, rare and long-lost liverwort, has been rediscovered in the southern Western Ghats in India after nearly two centuries. Till now the collection made by Perrottet during 1834–1839 in the Nilgiri Hills is the only representative of this species.

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Abstract  

A two step precipitation using ammonium carbonate and oxalic acid as the precipitants for thorium and iron is developed for the purification of 233U. Ammonium carbonate is added to the feed to increase the pH of the solution. The effect of pH on the solubility of U, Th and Fe in an excess of ammonium carbonate is studied. This indicates that the solubility of Th and Fe is minimum at pH 7 and the recovery of uranium is maximum. The effect of the concentration of thorium and iron on the recovery of uranium at pH 7 is studied. This indicates that the ammonium carbonate precipitation tolerates 2 g/l of thorium and 10 g/l of iron keeping losses of uranium to a minimum. If the feed solution contains more than a tolerable concentration of thorium the precipitation is followed in two steps: (1) Bulk of the thorium is removed by oxalate precipitation, (2) the remaining thorium and iron in the supernatant are removed by ammonium carbonate precipitation. A flow sheet is proposed for the purification of 233U from thorium and iron present in a strip product concentrate obtained during the reprocessing of irradiated thorium rods.

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