Authors:M. Bahra, D. Elliott, M. Reading, and R. Ryan
A novel instrument is described called the Thin film Analyser (TFA) which quantitatively measures changes in mechanical and rheological properties of drying films in-situ on a test panel. It is based around a simple force-sensing device, capable of carrying various probes, which can be positioned in anX-Y plane over the panel. Temperature control is achieved by means of a heating block under the sample. By imposing a thermal gradient along the block, measurements can be obtained at a series of temperatures in a single experiment. Several applications of the TFA to the drying of curable and latex-based coatings are discussed, as well as some more specialized uses. The TFA concept represents a novel approach to the thermal analysis of thin films.
Authors:Libo Zheng, Xiaolan Zhang, Jeremy Chen, Ryan Ichikawa, Kori Wallace, Charalabos Pothoulakis, Hon Wai Koon, Stephan R. Targan, and David Q. Shih
TL1A is a member of the TNF superfamily, and its expression is increased in the mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Moreover, patients with certain TNFSF15 variants over-express TL1A and have a higher risk of developing strictures in the small intestine. Consistently, mice with sustained Tl1a expression in either lymphoid or myeloid cells develop spontaneous ileitis and increased intestinal collagen deposition. Transgenic (Tg) mice with constitutive Tl1a expression in both lymphoid and myeloid cells were generated to assess their in vivo consequence. Constitutive expression of Tl1a in both lymphoid and myeloid cells showed increased spontaneous ileitis and collagen deposition than WT mice. T cells with constitutive expression of Tl1a in both lymphoid and myeloid cells were found to have a more activated phenotype, increased gut homing marker CCR9 expression, and enhanced Th1 and Th17 cytokine activity than WT mice. Although no differences in T cell activation marker, Th1 or Th17 cytokine activity, ileitis, or collagen deposition were found between constitutive Tl1a expression in lymphoid only, myeloid only, or combined lymphoid and myeloid cells. Double hemizygous Tl1a-Tg mice appeared to have worsened ileitis and intestinal fibrosis. Our findings confirm that TL1A-DR3 interaction is involved in T cell-dependent ileitis and fibrosis.