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  • Author or Editor: R. Schmidt x
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Abstract  

The physical ageing characteristics of glucose, fructose, and their mixtures were studied using standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The inflection, onset, midpoint,half-height, and endpoint glass transition temperature (T g), fictive temperature (T f), and relaxation enthalpy ( H) were measured as a function of ageing time. The relationship between H and T f was evaluated. The time dependence of H was fit using the Cowie and Ferguson model. The ageing rate was expressed in terms of the average relaxation time (<>) and the entropy production (P). It was found that the fructose component decreased the rate of ageing of the mixtures.

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Abstract  

The physical aging characteristics of maltose glasses aged at two temperatures below the glass transition temperature, Tg, (Tg-10C and Tg-20C) from 5 to 10 000 min were measured by standard differential scanning calorimetry (SDSC) and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The experimentally measured instrumental Tg, the calculated Tg, and the excess enthalpy values were obtained for aged glasses using both DSC methods. The development of excess enthalpy as a function of aging time, as measured by both SDSC and MDSC, was fit using the Cowie and Ferguson and Tool-Narayanswamy-Moynihan models. The change in the Tg values and the development of the excess enthalpy resulting from physical aging measured by the two DSC methods are discussed.

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The economy of glass-making is strongly correlated with the energy expended per unit of molten glass. With modified DTA equipment it is possible to get information about the energy consumed to heat the raw materials to the melting temperature, including the energy effects in a batch reaction. The influence of different concentrations of batch materials (cullets and slags) on the energy expended was investigated.

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The control and optimization of the glass-making process is a serious problem in glass production. An EGD procedure involving high-temperature vacuum extraction and total pressure measurement allows determination of the fining state (Läuterzustand) and fining behaviour (Läuterverhalten). The fining state is characterized by the contents of CO2, N2 and other gases from the batch reactions, and gas inclusions. Oxygen evolved in a second step is characteristic for the fining behaviour.

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Abstract  

Differential scanning microcalorimetric measurements on phase transitions in water-oil-surfactant mixtures are presented, demonstrating that this method is highly sensitive towards small heat changes connected with structural transitions in the samples. The values for the latent heat of phase transitions are determined and the results are compared with predictions from mean field theory, emphasizing the role calorimetric experiments can play to identify the most important contributions to the free energy describing the mixtures. Doing this, the present status of the understanding of temperature dependent phase transitions in microemulsions is reviewed.

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Abstract  

The fast transfer system in the DR 2 reactor for irradiation at a thermal neutron flux density of 1013 n·cm−2·sec−1 was used for the determination of lithium by the7Li(n, γ)8Li reaction. β-counting with a large perspex Cerenkov detector begun at 0.3 s after the end of irradiation, and multi-scaler data was accumulated in 300 channels at 0.1 s per channel. With a suitable choice of discrimination level only16N and background interfere, and the 0.84 s half-life of8Li was resolved by the method of weighted least squares. Results are presented for 36 international geochemical reference materials, and for a few biological samples, including BOWEN's kale and the NBS Standard Reference Material 1571 Orchard Leaves.

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