Authors:H. Grausgruber, S. Miesenberger, R. Schoenlechner, and J. Vollmann
Wholemeal products of einkorn wheat (
L.) could help to elevate the daily uptake of both dietary fibre and lutein, compounds which can assist the prevention of coronary heart disease and age-related macular degeneration, respectively. However, gluten strength and rheological properties of einkorn wheat are low and bran particles are reported to decrease bread volume and crumb elasticity of flours. It was demonstrated that the application of individual enzymes and/or emulsifiers or their application in mixtures can significantly improve bread volume and crumb firmness of whole-grain einkorn breads. Crumb porosity characteristics, however, were not affected. Synergistic interactions between the dough improvers can be supposed. The antithesis between the application of dough conditioners and the organic production of einkorn wheat, and optional methods for optimisation of whole-grain einkorn bread are discussed.
Amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and less known, canihua are the most important pseudocereals. Their high nutritional value is well recognized and they are increasingly used for the development of a wide range of starch-based foods, which has been fostered by intensified research data performed in recent years. In addition to health driven motivations, also environmental aspects like the ongoing climate change are an important stimulus to increase agricultural biodiversity again. As pseudocereals are botanically classified as dicotyledonous plants their chemical, physical and processing properties differ significantly from the monocotyledonous cereals. Most important factors that need to be addressed for processing is their smaller seed kernel size, their specific starch structure and granule architecture, their gluten-free protein, but also their dietary fibre and secondary plant metabolites composition. This review gives a condensed overview of the recent developments and gained knowledge with special attention to the technological and food processing aspects of these pseudocereals.
Authors:A. Bagdi, G. Balázs, J. Schmidt, M. Szatmári, R. Schoenlechner, E. Berghofer, and S. Tömösközia
Six varieties of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and two commercially available millets were investigated in the present study. In order to explore the nutritional potential, major nutrient composition, mineral composition, antioxidant capacity, total phenols content (related to the antioxidant capacity) and dietary fibre content were determined. The effects of decortication on these components were examined. In addition, protein profile of the varieties and amylose/amylopectin ratio of the starch were examined. The range of the values measured for major nutrient composition corresponds with data of other millet species published in earlier studies. Remarkable differences were found among the protein contents of the varieties (11.58–14.80%). Although the concentration of minerals was low in the varieties examined, in comparison with other cereals wholegrain millet seems to be nutritionally valuable because of their high dietary fibre content. Decortication had no effect on the protein and fat content of millets, however, it significantly decreased the content of crude fibre, dietary fibre, minerals, total phenols content and antioxidant capacity. Consequently the applicability of millets as functional food decreases. Decortication had no effect on the amylose/amylopectin ratio of millet. No varietal differences were found in terms of protein characteristics.