Authors:R. Singh, L. Ram, R.K. Singh and D. Singh Jakhar
Maize protein quality is deficit in essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan. These constraints of o2 (opaque2) are corrected in genetically improved, hard endosperm QPM (Quality Protein Maize). An integrated strategy of phenotypic selection for endosperm modifiers and molecular marker-assisted foreground and background selection has been used in present study. The QPM donors were, CML 161, DMRQPM 58, CML 176 and CML 141 whereas, normal maize inbreds were CM 212, V338, V361, V336, V341, V351, CM 141 and V335. The inbreds were subjected to parental polymorphism survey between non-QPM and QPM using CIMMYT based three SSR markers, viz. phi057, umc1066 and phi112. Two markers, viz. phi057 and umc1066 exhibited co-dominant reactions, while phi112 was dominant in nature. Finally, two combinations V335 × CML 141 and V351 × CML 141 were considered for conversion program. Foreground selection was exercised using o2 specific marker umc1066 in BC1 and BC2 generations, while background as well as foreground selection was exercised in BC2F3 generation to recover the genome of recurrent parent up to extent of 80 to 100% with the help of SSR markers distributed across the whole maize genome. The tryptophan concentration in endosperm protein was significantly enhanced and the converted maize lines had almost twice the amount of lysine and tryptophan than normal maize inbreds.
Poor emergence is a major problem in soybean [
(L.) Merrill]. A high emergence count leading to an optimum plant stand is a pre-requisite to obtain high grain yields. The results of three experiments on emergence in soybean are reported in this paper. Two field experiments were conducted to study the influence of wheat straw mulch, farmyard manure (FYM) mulch and seed soaking in water on the emergence of soybean under normal conditions. Immediately after sowing, covering rows of soybean with 3 t wheat straw ha
(row mulch) or the whole plot with 6 t wheat straw ha
(plot mulch) showed a profound effect on improving both the speed of emergence and the final emergence count. Row mulch with 5 t FYM ha
only improved emergence in one year and its effect was not as great as with straw mulch. Soaking the seeds in water (on-farm seed priming) for 4, 8 or 16 h reduced emergence drastically. Another field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different mulching treatments or crust breaking in alleviating the crust effect of simulated rain on the emergence of soybean. Covering the soybean rows with 3 t wheat straw ha
(row mulch) either before or after simulated rain improved the emergence count. Covering the soybean rows with 5 t FYM ha
or breaking the crust also improved emergence, though the effects were not as good as with wheat straw mulch. The results suggest that the use of wheat straw mulch or FYM mulch can improve emergence in soybean in both normal and crusted soils, possibly by lowering the maximum soil temperature and conserving soil moisture.
LetV be a system of weights on a completely regular Hausdorff spaceX and letB(E) be the topological vector space of all continuous linear operators on a general topological vector spaceE. LetCV0(X, E) andCVb(X, E) be the weighted spaces of vector-valued continuous functions (vanishing at infinity or bounded, respectively) which are not
necessarily locally convex. In the present paper, we characterize in this general setting the weighted composition operatorsWπ,ϕ onCV0(X, E) (orCVb(X, E)) induced by the operator-valued mappings π:X→B(E) (or the vector-valued mappings π:X→E, whereE is a topological algebra) and the self-map ϕ ofX. Also, we characterize the mappings π:X→B(E) (or π:x→E) and ϕ:X→X which induce the compact weighted composition operators on these weighted spaces of continuous functions.
Extraction of U(VI), Zr(IV) and Th(IV) has been investigated from perchlorate media using 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC-88A) dissolved in toluene. The extraction of U(VI), Zr(IV) and Th(IV) was found to be quantitative in the pH range 1.6 to 3.2, 2.0 to 4.7 and 2.3 to 3.8, respectively, with 3.0.10-3, 5.6.10-4 and 1.0.10-2M PC-88A dissolved in toluene. U(VI) was stripped with 4.0M HCl, Zr(IV) with 2.5M NaF and Th(IV) with 8.0M HCl from the metal loaded organic phase containing PC-88A dissolved in toluene. The probable extracted species have been ascertained by plotting log D vs. log [HR] as UO2R2.2HR, ZrR4.2HR and ThR4.4HR, respectively. U(VI) was separated from Zr(IV) and Th(IV) and from other associated metals. This method was proved by the determination of U(VI) in some real samples.
Two bis(bipyridine) polymeric metal nitrate complexes
with 4,4’-bipyridine of simple formula like [M(bipy)2](NO3)2⋅xH2O (where M=Co, Ni and Cu; x=4, 2 and 0, respectively) have been prepared and
characterized. Their thermal decomposition has been undertaken using simultaneous
TG-DTG-DTA and DSC in nitrogen atmosphere and non-isothermal TG in air atmosphere.
Isothermal TG has been performed at decomposition temperature range of the
complexes to evaluate the kinetics of decomposition by applying model-fitting
as well as isoconversional method. Possible mechanistic pathways have also
been proposed for the thermolysis. Ignition delay measurements have been carried
out to investigate the response of these complexes under the condition of
Authors:A. Goel, R. Goel, G. Jain Jain, R. Singh Singh, F. Ahmad Ahmad and G. Singh Singh
A new, specific, sensitive, selective, precise, and reproducible high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been established for study of the stability of 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA). HPTLC was performed on aluminium foil plates coated with 200 μm silica gel 60F254. Linear ascending development with toluene-ethyl acetate 7:3 (v/v) was performed at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) in a twin-trough glass chamber saturated with mobile phase vapour. Compact bands (RF 0.52 ± 0.02) were obtained for AKBA. Spectrodensitometric scanning was performed in absorbance mode at 250 nm. Linear regression analysis of the calibration plots showed there was a good linear relationship (r2 = 0.9989 ± 0.0002) between peak area and concentration in the range 200–1200 ng band−1. The method was validated for precision, recovery, robustness, specificity, and detection and quantification limits, in accordance with ICH guidelines. The limits of detection and quantification were 3.06 and 9.29 ng band−1, respectively. The recovery of the method was 99.35–100.21%. AKBA was subjected to various stress test conditions — acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, photodegradation, and dry and wet heat treatment. Degradation products were well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different RF values. Statistical analysis showed the method could be successfully applied for the estimation of AKBA in herbal extract and in nanoparticles. Because the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be regarded as stability-indicating.
Authors:R. Singh, R. Behl, P. Jain, N. Narula and K. Singh
The present investigation was conducted to investigate the impact of bio-inoculants on the magnitude and direction of gene effects and mean performance for root length density, root biomass per plant, AMF colonization in roots and micronutrient uptake (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) in wheat under low input field conditions. The material for study comprised three wheat cultivars, WH 147 (low mineral input), WH 533 (drought-tolerant), Raj 3077 (high mineral input) and six generations (P
) of three crosses, namely WH 147 × WH 533, WH 533 × Raj 3077 and WH 147 × Raj 3077. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications having three treatments, i.e. (i) control; (ii) inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF,
); (iii) dual inoculation with AMF and
). The fertilizer doses in all three treatments were 80 kg N + 40 kg P + 18 kg ZnSO
. Root length density, root biomass per plant, AMF colonization in roots and Zn and Mn content were found to be maximum after dual inoculation with AMF+
in all three crosses. Joint scaling tests revealed that additive-dominance gene effects were mainly operative in governing the expression of root biomass, Cu and Zn content in all three crosses for all three treatments (i.e. control, AMF and AMF +
). Pedigree selection in crosses WH 147 × WH 533 and WH 147 × Raj 3077 could be effective for breeding pure lines of wheat for sustainable agriculture (low input genotypes responsive to biofertilizers such as AMF and