The isotopic exchange reaction of iodine in fused NaI–NaIO3 and KI–KIO3 systems, which does not proceed until the mixture is melted, is found to be almost instantaneous in homogeneous melts. The equilibrium is attained within a period of less than 5 min at a temperature 5°C above the melting temperature of each composition for both systems. No noticeable exchange is observed even after heating the samples for 30 min at a temperature 20°C below the corresponding melting point. A single-step bimolecular association-dissociation mechanism is proposed for the exchange.
Authors:Miss, S. Baluja, R. Singh, R. Tripathi, and B. Shukla
Tracer diffusion of131I– ions is studied at different temperatures /20°C–50°C/ in 2.5% agar gel containing sodium and potassium sulphate solutions over a wide range of concentrations. The results are in qualitative agreement with the theoretical values in the concentration range 10–6–10–1M. Agar gel shows an obstruction effect to diffusional flow. The activation energy for tracer diffusion was found to be of the order of 16.3 kJ mol–1.
Authors:B. Rana, A. Shukla, R. Topno, R. Tripathi, and V. Puranik
The study summarizes radiological characteristics of Banduhurang open cast mine which includes qualitative and quantitative
behavior of 222Rn concentration, external gamma radiation level over the mine pit as well as in its adjoining environment, long-lived alpha
(LLα) activity concentration associated with the respirable size of ore dust and assessment of dose to the mine workers in
2006–2008. The investigations reveal that geometric means (χg) of measured radon concentration were 36.39, 38.69, 26.64 and 24 Bq m−3 with respective geometric standard deviations (σg) were 1.52, 1.55, 1.36 and 1.68 Bq m−3 and χg of gamma absorbed dose rates were 0.54, 0.64, 0. 45 and 0.15 μGy h−1 with respective σg were 1.63, 1.53, 1.52 and 1.72 μGy h−1 over the mine pit, ore yard, waste yard and in the surrounding environment within a 10 km radius to the mine, respectively.
The χg of LLα activity was observed to be 16 mBq m−3 with σg of 1.9 mBq m−3. The annual mean effective dose equivalent received by the member radiation workers of Banduhurang mine was estimated to
1.41 mSv y−1, which is about 7% of the prescribed dose limits of 20 mSv y−1.
Authors:Ranjeet Kumar, R. C. Tripathi, and M. D. Tiwari
In the current scenario of the global economy and race for the next Asian super power, overall economic strength of the two countries, India and China, is a most debated topic. The future role of intellectual property protection especially in the form of patent system and the growth of industrialization for these two developing economies in ASIA may prove to be crucial over all other assets. In the current development scene of the changing global market supported by intangible asset of inventions protected mainly through the patents is emerging to play an important role. This paper elaborates the statistical research on patents granted/filed in the US Patent and Trade Mark office (US-PTO), PCT of WIPO and in the home countries over last 35 years of aforesaid two Asian countries. It is found that the economic and technological growth of both of the countries may make main difference primarily based on the level of patenting activity by them.
Authors:K. Dhoot, R. Tripathi, M. Jangid, and M. Chacharkar
Mössbauer spectroscopic studies were carried out on some synthesized iron complexes of Schiff's bases. The studies have evidenced that iron/II/ and iron/III/ species were formed, and no stereoisomers were found. However, the complex of bis/acetylacetone diethylene triamine/ had shown the geometric isomers, and only the Fe/III/ species formed. Immersion of the chelate of iron bis/salicylaldehyde ethylene diamine/ in aerated distilled water for a day had resulted in the conversion of the entire iron/II/ species into the iron/III/ complexes. The exposure to atmosphere had converted a part of iron/II/ into iron/III/ and resulted in distortion of the iron/II/ chelates. This leaves a room to think that oxygen transport or absorption may bring change in the oxidation number of the central metal ion or distortion in the structural arrangements.
Authors:S. Chinnaesakki, S. Bara, S. Sartandel, R. Tripathi, and V. Puranik
Comprehensive quality assurance/quality control procedure is very much necessary to obtain accurate and precise analytical
measurement result. This paper discusses the quality control aspects of the High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometry
system, which has been used for the measurement of low-level radioactivity in environmental samples. The gamma spectrometry
system consisting of coaxial n-type HPGe detector having 50% relative efficiency with respect to 7.62 cm x 7.62 cm NaI (Tl),
Nuclear Instrumentation Module (NIM) based pulse processing electronic accessories and 8 k MCA. To reduce the background contribution,
7.5 cm thick lead has been placed surrounding the detector. The minimum detectable activities (MDA) with 95% confidence level
(for 300 g soil sample and 100,000 s counting time) for important radionuclides such as 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs are 10.4, 4.3, 4.1, 16.9 and 0.1 Bq kg−1, respectively. The Quality control (X bar R) charts were plotted using 137Cs and 40K background counts observed periodically, which showed that the fluctuation is well within the confidence limit and confirms
the stability of the system. The laboratory has been participating in the proficiency tests (PTs) of the International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA). In recently concluded PTs, the samples include soil, spiked standard solution, spinach, phosphogypsum
and spiked air filter were analysed for the natural, fission and activation products radionuclides. The performance evaluation
of the IAEA PTs showed that the laboratory results were in good agreement with the target value, which confirms the reliability
and traceability of the gamma spectrometric measurement result of the laboratory.
Authors:S. Sartandel, S. Bara, S. Chinnaesakki, R. Tripathi, and V. Puranik
This paper discusses the measurement of naturally occurring radioactivity materials (NORM) in beach sand minerals using high
resolution gamma spectrometry. In India, the beach sand minerals of economic interest from coastal Kerala, Tamil Nadu and
Orissa are enriched with NORM due to the occurrence of monazite deposits and heavy minerals such as zircon, ilmenite, magnetite,
garnet, rutile etc. Since many of these ores are rich in 232Th and other radio elements, certification of radioactivity levels has become mandatory in recent years. The average activity
concentrations of 226Ra in zircon, rutile and garnet were 3,531, 1,134 and 17 Bq kg−1, respectively. The average activity concentration of 232Th observed in zircon, rutile and garnet were 618, 454 and 64 Bq kg−1, respectively. Concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in ilmenite ore ranged from 17.6–444 Bq kg−1, 80.4–1971 Bq kg−1 and ≤5.5–25.0 Bq kg−1, respectively.
Authors:A. Nigam, R. Tripathi, M. Jangid, and M. Chacharkar
The corrosion of mild steel as a result of interaction with various types of local natural water samples and distilled water is studied with the help of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The data are supplemented with the studies on IR and magnetic properties as and when required. Distilled water and potable water behave in almost similar fashion wherein ferrihydrite and FeOOH are observed to be the precursors of magnetite, the end corrosion product. In case of brakish water, the additional species, viz., FeCl2, FeOOH and an intermediate possibly FeOCl are accounted, and possible mechanisms are suggested.
Authors:A. Nigam, R. Tripathi, M. Jangid, M. Chacharkar, and Madan Lal
Tungsten ores from Degana, Rajashthan State, India are studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy. The low grade ore exhibits two types of mineral assemblages as per chemical states of iron. The relation between ferrous/ferric ratio and tungsten concentration also supports the existence of two types of mineral assemblages. The Mössbauer spectroscopy of concentrate ore samples has shown the absence of iron. The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on the contrary has evidenced the presence of iron in concentrate ore samples but at lower concentration on comparison with low grade ores. These differences in behaviour in the above spectroscopic studies may be additionally due to higher attenuation of -radiations and higher atomic weight material in the ore concentrates.