Authors:S. P. Martynov, T. V. Dobrotvorskaya, A. I. Morgounov, R. A. Urazaliev and et al.
The genetic diversity of 116 spring bread wheat cultivars released in Kazakhstan from 1929-2004 was studied by means of a genealogical analysis. The tendency of genetic diversity to change over time was traced by analysing a series of n ´ m matrices, where n is the number of released cultivars and m is the number of landrace ancestors. The pool of landrace ancestors of spring wheat cultivars in 1929-2004 contained a total of 114 landraces and old varieties, including 19 from Kazakhstan and Central Asia and 23 from neighbouring regions of Russia. The original ancestors differ significantly in frequency of presence and hence in their importance in the genepool of spring wheats cultivated in Kazakhstan. Significant differences in the contributions of dominant ancestors to cultivars for various regions have been revealed, showing that those ancestors were specifically adapted to different growing conditions. During the past 75 years, genetic diversity has increased due to the wide use of foreign materials in breeding programmes. A more detailed study has shown that during the period analysed, 15 landraces from Kazakhstan and neighbouring regions of Central Asia and Russia (35% of local germplasm) were lost from the pedigrees. The cluster structure of modern cultivars included in the Kazakhstan Official List (2002) was established. By analysing coefficients of parentage, significant differences in the genetic diversity of cultivars from various growing regions were revealed.
Authors:A. Kokhmetova, A. Madenova, G. Kampitova, R. Urazaliev, M. Yessimbekova, A. Morgounov and L. Purnhauser
Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici, is one of the major diseases of wheat in Kazakhstan. To effectively use leaf rust resistance genes (Lr), it is important for breeders to know the resistance genotype in current cultivars. In this study, 30 winter wheat entries grown and/or produced in Kazakhstan were investigated using molecular markers to determine the presence and absence of eight important Lr genes. Molecular screening of these genotypes showed contrasting differences in the frequencies of these genes. Among the 30 entries, 17 carried leaf rust resistance gene Lr1, six had Lr26 and Lr34, and Lr10 and Lr37 were found in three cultivars. Two single cultivars separately carried Lr19 and Lr68, while Lr9 was not detected in any genotypes in this study. Field evaluation demonstrated that two of the most frequent two genes (Lr1 and Lr26) to be ineffective. While Lr34 provided some protection, the remaining effective Lr genes were found only in few genotypes: Lr37 occurred in Kazakh genotypes L-1090 and Krasnovodapadskaya 210 and in the US cultivar Madsen; Lr19 and Lr68 were likely present only in Russian and Kazakh cultivars, Pallada and Yegemen, respectively. The highest resistance over three years of leaf rust testing was found in Kazakh cultivars, Karasay, Krasnovodapadskaya 210, L-1090, Arap and Yegmen, foreign cultivars Madsen, Pallada and the control Parula (Lr68). Data may assist breeders to incorporate effective Lr genes into new cultivars.