Knowledge of occurrence and concentration of trace elements in dust particulates from and around industrial establishments is essential to know the source of pollutants and atmosphere quality. Dust particulates from two cement factories in the central part of India were analyzed for 5 minor (Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na) and 23 trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Ga, Hf, Hg, La, Mn, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, W and Zn) by INAA and RNAA techniques. Significant differences have been observed for some toxic trace elements at different locations. Mn content is particularly high in all the dust particulates. Urban particulate (SRM 1648) and Coal fly ash (SRM 1633a) from NIST and Pond sediment (CRM No. 2) from NIES were also analyzed. The data have been analyzed and interpreted in terms of air quality at different locations inside the plant and two factories.
A radiochemical method for the determination of gold using198Au, has been developed. It is based on the synergistic extraction of Au(III) with thionalide (TA) in ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) or isobuthyl methyl ketone (IBMK) at pH 5.0.Effect of various parameters such as pH, nature of solvent and interferences due to other radionuclides have been studied. The method can be used up to 25 ng of Au.
Human, animal (cow, buffalo and goat) and commercial milk powders (for infants and adults) have been analyzed for 5 minor (Na, K, Mg, Cl and P) and 13 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, Se, Sb, Cs and Br) by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation. Milk standards NIST SRM 1549 and IAEA A-11 along with diet standards RM 8431 a and IAEA H-9 were also analyzed for quality assurance. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 10 m, 1 h, 6 h and 1 week in a reactor followed by high resolution -spectrometry. Concentrations of Fe, Co, Zn, Sb, and Se were also determined by radiochemical solvent extraction. Mean concentrations of Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, Fe, Mn and Cu in human milk (colostrum) are comparable with that of a WHO/IAEA study. It has, however, lower contents of toxic trace elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Br, Se, Sb and As) compared to breast tissue from the same area. Cow milk is richer in Na, K, Cl, Mn and Se but it has comparable amounts of Mg, Zn, Br, Fe and Sb with respect to breast milk. Significant differences have been observed for elemental concentrations of Na, K, P and Fe in commercial formula milk powders for infants and adults. Infant's milk powders contain all the nutrient elements in balanced amounts required for the higher growth rate of a child.
Phosphorus has been determined using the
- emitter32P by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in several NBS and IAEA standards and samples of biological origin such as human and animal blood, cancerous tissue, edible plant leaves, diets, milk samples, etc. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 2–10 h in a reactor followed by
--counting on an end-window gas flow proportional counter using an aluminium filter. The results are within ±10% of the certified values in most cases.
A radiochemical solvent extraction method has been developed for the determination of Mn(II) using54Mn tracer. Mn(II) is complexed with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) at pH 8.5 and extracted in isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK). Different parameters affecting the extraction, and interferences due to diverse ions have been studied. The method can be used for the determination of Mn in microgram amounts.
Authors:N. Chutke, M. Ambulkar, R. Weginwar, and A. Garg
A radiochemical solvent extraction procedure has been developed for the determination of As(III) using76As tracer. It is based on the complexation of As(III) with toluene-3,4-dithiol (TDT) at pH 2 and subsequent extraction in benzene. The effect of various parameters such as pH, time of equilibration, nature of solvent, quantitative character and interferences have been studied. The method has been further developed into substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis for the determination of As at < 1 g level and employed for the analysis of several environmental and biological standard Reference Materials from NIST (USA), IAEA (Vienna) and NIES (Japan).
Authors:B. Liu, S. Ambe, S. Enomoto, R. Weginwar, and F. Ambe
Radioisotopes of 37 elements were isolated from a gold target irradiated with an energetic12C beam and were used as a multitracer to establish procedures for separating themselves into groups of carrier-, salt-and organic matter-free tracers. Solvent extraction with HDEHP and ethyl methyl ketone along with cation exchange yielded group tracers ready for application to chemical and biological studies.
Authors:R. Weginwar, Y. Kobayashi, S. Ambe, B. Liu, S. Enomoto, and F. Ambe
Separation of Au(III) and various carrier-free radionuclides by solvent extraction was investigated using an Au target irradiated by an energetic heavy-ion beam. Percentage extraction of Au(III) and coextraction of the radionuclides were determined with varying parameters such as kinds of solvent, molarity of HCl or pH, and Au concentration. Under the conditions where Au(III) was effectively extracted, namely extraction with ethyl acetate or isobutyl methyl ketone from 3 mol·dm–3 HCl, carrier-free radionuclides of many elements were found to be more or less coextracted. Coextraction of radionuclides of some elements was found to increase with an increase in the concentration of Au(III). This finding is ascribed to the formation of strong association of the complex of these elements with chloroauric acid. In order to avoid serious loss of these elements by the extraction, lowering of the Au(III) concentration or the use of a masking agent such as sodium citrate is necessary. Gold(III) was shown to be effectively back extracted with a 0.1 mol·dm–3 aqueous solution of 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol. Thus, a radiochemical procedure has been established for preparing a carrier-free multitracer and an Au tracer with carrier form from an Au target irradiated with a heavy-ion beam. Both tracers are now used individually for chemical and biological experiments.
Authors:R. Weginwar, B. Liu, S. Ambe, S. Enomoto, H. Maeda, and F. Ambe
The solvent extraction of Zr and Hf was studied using 444-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedione (TTA) from a multitracer solution containing carrier-free radioisotopes of Zr, Hf, and other elements. The multitracer was prepared from Au foil irradiated with high-energy heavy-ion beams. Effects of HCl and HNO3 concentrations and organic solvent on the extraction and coextraction of other radionuclides have been studied. It was found that decalin (decahydronaphthalene) was the best solvent among 14 solvents studied and the optimum aqueous phase was 2 mol·dm–3 HCl or HNO3. About 2–10% of Sr, Rb, Sc and Nb were coextracted with Zr and Hf. The reversed phase extraction of Zr and Hf was also developed by using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution at pH range of 8.5–10.