This paper offers a reexamination of the role of Nogai (c.1237–1300) in the Golden Horde. Commonly portrayed as an almighty khanmaker appointing the Jochid khans at will, I argue that this is a creation of the secondary literature. Instead, based on a rereading of the relevant primary sources, I argue for a far more limited role of Nogai within the Horde’s politics. While influential as both a military commander (first as beylerbeyi and then tammachi) and as the elder member of the Jochid lineage (aqa), Nogai’s power over the Horde was never as great as the scholarship has consistently portrayed.
Citation data have been collected for a large number of chemists at American universities. The principal objectives are to examine the use of citations as a tool in the study of sociology of chemical research and to determine the feasibility and accurancy of using automatically generated data. Past results in each of these areas, as well as a projection of future uses of citation data, are presented. First, a pilot study is described and some tentative conclusions discussed. The method used minimizes some of the most commonly-expressed criticism of citation data, such as multiple author, self-citations, etc. An effort has been made to establish the accuracy of automatically generated citation data. This project uses as a base for comparison the complete bibliographies of several thousand chemists. Several different citation indices are compared with other indicators commonly employed in discussions of the characteristics of the field of chemistry. The results generally support the idea that citations are meaningful. However, they also reveal some problems which require that great care be exercised in the use of citation data. The use of citation data to observe a chemistry subfield over time also is illustrated.
This is a sequel of the work done on (strongly) monotonically monolithic spaces and their generalizations. We introduce the
notion of monotonically κ-monolithic space for any infinite cardinal κ and present the relevant results. We show, among other things, that any σ-product of monotonically κ-monolithic spaces is monotonically κ-monolithic for any infinite cardinal κ; besides, it is consistent that any strongly monotonically ω-monolithic space with caliber ω1 is second countable. We also study (strong) monotone κ-monolithicity in linearly ordered spaces and subspaces of ordinals.
Dialysis and precipitation methods have been used to study the binding affinity of selected technetium-99m phosphorus radiopharmaceuticals
to human serum proteins. The binding affinities of three different99mTc bone imaging agents were found to be inversely related to their respective clearance rates from blood in vivo. The binding
order showed99mTcPPi>99mTcHEDP>99mTcMDP. The99mTc phosphorus radiopharmaceuticals were bound primarily to alpha globulins. The results suggest that the binding of99mTc phosphorus radiopharmaceuticals to human serum proteins in blood is largely determined by their affinities to the alpha
An interdisciplinary and systems-oriented approach for evaluation of academic programs was explored in veterinary research,
education and extension in the context of prevention of bovine mastitis. Bibliometric-based document analysis and observation
methods were used to assess disciplinary contents of veterinary research and graduate education theses, and New York State
dairy farmers' adoption rate of selected veterinary recommendations (bacteriological testing of raw milk, “closed herds”,
and three hygiene-related practices). Findings indicated that: a) the veterinary extension literature was lower in output
and less differentiated in disciplinary content than that of the agricultural counterpart; b) three disciplines accounted
for 85% of all theses major contents; and c) 39.7% of New York dairies requested bacteriological testing, 50% of investigated
dairies had “closed herds” and at least 9.4% of those did not adopt all the hygiene-related practices. Context-specific recommendations
are proposed. It is concluded that this evaluation approach may facilitate policy analysis, program development and may be
applicable to other academic settings.
Interdisciplinary synthesis and validity analysis (ISVA), a structured learning approach which integrates learning and communication theories, meta-analytic evaluation methods,
and literature management-related technologies was applied in the context of the 1993–1997 bovine mastitis research literature.
This study investigated whether ISVA could: 1) facilitate the analysis and synthesis of interdisciplinary knowledge claims,
and 2) generate projects or research questions. The bovine mastitis-related literature was conceptualized as composed of microbiological,
immunological, and epidemiological dimensions. Keywords involving these dimensions were searched in theMedline andAgricola databases. A final list of 148 articles were retrieved, analyzed, synthesized into fifteen information sub-sets, and evaluated
for construct, internal, external and statistical validity through an interdisciplinary iterative dialogical process. Validity
threats were re-phrased as new research or educational projects.
Both local and regional factors determine local species richness. We investigated the relative role of local (13 soil and tree stand structure variables) and regional factors (19 climate, land cover and geographic location variables) in determining the richness of several vascular plant functional groups in indigenous forest fragments in southeastern New Zealand. The predictor variables explaining the largest fraction of the variation in species richness were identified using a backward and forward stepwise procedure, with adjustments for the number of variables and testing for multicollinearity. The total proportion of variation explained by local and regional factors was highest for tree species richness (54.1%) and lowest for herbaceous species richness (28.2%). We found differences between the functional groups in the extent to which species richness was explained by local vs. regional factors, but both showed some ability to explain the species richness of all functional groups. The abundance of the strongly competitive tree species Nothofagus menziesii (silver beech) had a strong negative effect on total, tree and herb species richness, but it had only minor effects on woody and fern species richness. Once the effect of this local variable was accounted for, the remaining variation in tree and woody species richness was mainly explained by regional variables. Herbaceous and fern species richness, on the other hand, was strongly correlated with local as well as regional variables. We emphasize the importance of using a fixed plot size when the relative effects of local and regional factors on patterns of species richness are to be compared and evaluated.
To remain independent and healthy, an important factor to consider is the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Inactivity leads to measurable changes in muscle and bone, reduces exercise capacity, impairs the immune system, and decreases the sensitivity to insulin. Therefore, maintaining physical activity is of great importance for skeletal muscle health. One form of structured physical activity is resistance training. Generally speaking, one needs to lift weights at approximately 70% of their one repetition maximum (1RM) to have noticeable increases in muscle size and strength. Although numerous positive effects are observed from heavy resistance training, some at risk populations (e.g. elderly, rehabilitating patients, etc.) might be advised not to perform high-load resistance training and may be limited to performance of low-load resistance exercise. A technique which applies pressure cuffs to the limbs causing blood flow restriction (BFR) has been shown to attenuate atrophy and when combined with low intensity exercise has resulted in an increase in both muscle size and strength across different age groups. We have provided an evidence based model of progression from bed rest to higher load resistance training, based largely on BFR literature concentrating on more at risk populations, to highlight a possible path to recovery.