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Authors: Jesús Castro-Calvo, Rafael Ballester-Arnal, Joel Billieux, Beatriz Gil-Juliá and María Dolores Gil-Llario

Background and aims

Sexual addiction is a pathological behavior characterized by a combination of excessive sexual desire and impaired ability to control it. Its incidence ranges between 1.2% and 32.2%, although this number may vary depending on the screening tool used. This wide variability is largely due to the use of non-validated instruments (e.g., structural validity relying on exploratory analyses, instruments translated without an additional validation process, or instruments validated in another format). To deal with these limitations, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Spanish paper-and-pencil and online versions of the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST).


A total of 2,528 participants (1,163 males) completed the Spanish version of the SAST, along with other instruments assessing sexual compulsivity (1,585 = paper-and-pencil, 943 = online).


The exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor structure explaining 57.39% of the variance for the SAST paper-and-pencil version. This factor structure was then verified for the online version through the use of confirmatory factor analysis [χ2(264) = 441.59; χ2/df = 1.66; RMSEA = 0.02; CFI = 0.94; IFI = 0.94]. This methodology was also used to support measurement invariance (configural, metric, and scalar invariance) according to gender. The reliability of the total score ranged from .82 to .85. Similarly, correlations with related scales were positive and significant (r between .22 and .71). Temporal stability 1 year after the first application was 0.65 (paper-and-pencil format) and 0.60 (online version).


These results, together with the absence of questionnaires translated into Spanish to assess this construct, justify the use of the SAST in the evaluation of sexual addiction in Spanish-speaking countries.

Open access
Authors: Jesús Castro-Calvo, Rafael Ballester-Arnal, Marc N. Potenza, Daniel L. King and Joël Billieux

In April 2018, the servers of the popular video game “Fortnite” crashed for 24 hr. During this period, Pornhub (a popular pornographic website) analyzed trends in pornography access, finding that: (a) the percentage of gamers accessing Pornhub increased by 10% and (b) the searches of pornographic videos using the key term “Fortnite” increased by 60%. In this letter, we discuss these observations in the context of ongoing debate regarding the validity of “withdrawal” when applied to problematic involvement in video gaming and the potential use of pornography as a “compensation behavior” during the periods of “forced abstinence” from gaming.

Open access