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In a twenty five years old long-term fertilizer experiment with rice-wheat-cowpea system on a mollisol at Pantnagar; rice and wheat responded well to applied N, Zn and FYM over the years; whereas, responses to other applied nutrients are improving with the passage of time owing to decline in their availability in soil. Uptake of micronutrients by the entire cropping sequence of rice-wheat-cowpea varied from 143 to 597, 2274 to 6169, 384 to 1234 and 119 to 521 g ha −1 for Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu, respectively. The highest removal of Zn by crops was observed under 100%NPK+Zn, while that of Fe, Mn and Cu was under 100%NPK+FYM. Removal of micronutrients by the annual cropping cycle depleted the availability of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu in soil in the range of 0.02–.0.37, 0.1–1.8, 0.1–1.6 and 0.1–0.2 mg kg −1 , respectively under different treatments.

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Maize protein quality is deficit in essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan. These constraints of o2 (opaque2) are corrected in genetically improved, hard endosperm QPM (Quality Protein Maize). An integrated strategy of phenotypic selection for endosperm modifiers and molecular marker-assisted foreground and background selection has been used in present study. The QPM donors were, CML 161, DMRQPM 58, CML 176 and CML 141 whereas, normal maize inbreds were CM 212, V338, V361, V336, V341, V351, CM 141 and V335. The inbreds were subjected to parental polymorphism survey between non-QPM and QPM using CIMMYT based three SSR markers, viz. phi057, umc1066 and phi112. Two markers, viz. phi057 and umc1066 exhibited co-dominant reactions, while phi112 was dominant in nature. Finally, two combinations V335 × CML 141 and V351 × CML 141 were considered for conversion program. Foreground selection was exercised using o2 specific marker umc1066 in BC1 and BC2 generations, while background as well as foreground selection was exercised in BC2F3 generation to recover the genome of recurrent parent up to extent of 80 to 100% with the help of SSR markers distributed across the whole maize genome. The tryptophan concentration in endosperm protein was significantly enhanced and the converted maize lines had almost twice the amount of lysine and tryptophan than normal maize inbreds.

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Kamini Vidrawan Ras is a classical Ayurvedic medicine, referred to in Bhaisjya Ratnavali, a book recognized by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of India. Its usefulness has been stated in erectile dysfunction, impotence, and premature ejaculation. Opium is the major ingredient of formulation which is highly addictive as it contains narcotic alkaloids (morphine, codeine, and thebaine). Opium is a natural product; hence, the morphine content varies from 4–21%. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, precise, rapid, and reliable high-performance thin-layer chromatography— densitometry method for the quantitative estimation of morphine in the tablets of the said Ayurvedic medicines. Aluminum-backed silica gel F254 (20 cm × 10 cm) was used as the stationary phase and ethyl acetate, methanol, and ammonia (85:10:5, v/v) as the mobile phase. The R F value for morphine was 0.36, and the quantitative evaluation of the bands over plates was performed in the reflectance—absorbance mode at 280 nm. The regression analysis of the calibration plot showed good linear relationship between peak area vs. morphine concentration. Linearity was found in the range of 400 to 1200 ng per band, and the amount of morphine was estimated by comparing the peak area of the standard morphine.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: R. Ponnuswamy, A. Rathore, A. Vemula, R.R. Das, A.K. Singh, D. Balakrishnan, H.S. Arremsetty, R.B. Vemuri, and T. Ram

The All India Coordinated Rice Improvement Project of ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad organizes multi-location testing of elite lines and hybrids to test and identify new rice cultivars for the release of commercial cultivation in India. Data obtained from Initial Hybrid Rice Trials of three years were utilized to understand the genotype × environment interaction (GEI) patterns among the test locations of five different agro-ecological regions of India using GGE and AMMI biplot analysis. The combined analysis of variance and AMMI ANOVA for a yield of rice hybrids were highly significant for GEI. The GGE biplots first two PC explained 54.71%, 51.54% and 59.95% of total G + GEI variation during 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively, whereas AMMI biplot PC1 and PC2 explained 46.62% in 2010, 36.07% in 2011 and 38.33% in 2012 of the total GEI variation. Crossover interactions, i.e. genotype rank changes across locations were observed. GGE biplot identified hybrids, viz. PAN1919, TNRH193, DRH005, VRH639, 26P29, Signet5051, KPH385, VRH667, NIPH101, SPH497, RH664 Plus and TNRH222 as stable rice hybrids. The discriminative locations identified in different test years were Coimbatore, Maruteru, VNR, Jammu, Raipur, Ludhiana, Karjat and Dabhoi. The AMMI1 biplot identified the adaptable rice hybrids viz., CNRH102, DRH005, NK6303, NK6320, DRRH78, NIPH101, Signet5050, BPH115, Bio452, NPSH2003, and DRRH83. The present study demonstrated that AMMI and GGE biplots analyses were successful in assessing genotype by environment interaction in hybrid rice trials and aided in the identification of stable and adaptable rice hybrids with higher mean and stable yields.

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