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  • Author or Editor: Reena Gupta x
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In the present study, the optimization of production and reaction conditions of polygalacturonase produced by a fungus Byssochlamys fulva MTCC 505 was achieved. The production of polygalacturonase with a considerable activity of 1.28 IU/ml was found when the culture was shaken at 30°C for 5 days in 100 ml of medium containing (w/v) 10 g/l pectin, 2 g/l NaNO3, 1 g/l KH2PO4, 0.5 g/l KCl, 0.5 g/l MgSO4. 7H2O, 0.001 g/l FeSO4. 7H2O, 0.001 g/l CaCl2. The best carbon and nitrogen source for this enzyme were pectin (1%) and Ca(NO3)2 (0.1%), respectively. The enzyme gave maximum activity at incubation time of 72 h, temperature of 30°C and pH 4.5. During the optimization of reaction conditions, the enzyme showed maximum activity in sodium citrate buffer (50 mM) of pH 5.5 at 50°C reaction temperature for 15 minutes of incubation. The enzyme showed greater affinity for polygalacturonic acid as substrate (0.5%). K m and V max values were 0.15 mg/ml and 4.58 μmol/ml/min. The effect of various phenolics, thiols, protein inhibitors and metal ions on the enzyme activity was investigated. The enzyme was quite stable at 4°C and 30°C. At 40°C the half life of the enzyme was 6 h and at 60°C it was 2 h.

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The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality.

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Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis and the synthesis of esters formed from glycerol and long chain fatty acids. Lipases occur widely in nature, but only microbial lipases are commercially significant. In the present study, thirty-two bacterial strains, isolated from soil sample of a hot spring were screened for lipase production. The strain TS-4, which gave maximum activity, was identified as Geobacillus sp. at MTCC, IMTECH, Chandigarh. The isolated lipase producing bacteria were grown on minimal salt medium containing olive oil. Maximal quantities of lipase were produced when 30 h old inoculum was used at 10% (v/v) in production medium and incubated in shaking conditions (150 rpm) for 72 h. The optimal temperature and pH for the bacterial growth and lipase production were found to be 60°C and 9.5, respectively. Maximal enzyme production resulted when mustard oil was used as carbon source and yeast extract as sole nitrogen source at a concentration of 1% (v/v) and 0.15% (w/v), respectively. The different optimized reaction parameters were temperature 65°C, pH 8.5, incubation time 10 min and substrate p-nitrophenyl palmitate. The K m and V max values of enzyme were found to be 14 mM and 17.86 μmol ml−1min−1, respectively, with p-nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate. All metal ions studied (1 mM) increased the lipase activity.

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The present work is focused on efficient immobilization of polygalacturonase on polyethylene matrix, followed by its application in apple juice clarification. Immobilization of polygalacturonase on activated polyethylene and its use in apple juice clarification was not reported so far. Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (MTCC 3323) produced polygalacturonase when grown in modified Riviere’s medium containing pectin as single carbon source by fed-batch culture. The enzyme was precipitated with ethanol and purified by gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S-100) and immobilized onto glutaraldehyde-activated polyethylene. The method is very simple and time saving for enzyme immobilization. Various characteristics of immobilized enzyme such as optimum reaction temperature and pH, temperature and pH stability, binding kinetics, efficiency of binding, reusability and metal ion effect on immobilized enzymes were evaluated in comparison to the free enzyme. Both the free and immobilized enzyme showed maximum activity at a temperature of 45 °C and pH 4.8. Maximum binding efficiency was 38%. The immobilized enzyme was reusable for 3 cycles with 50% loss of activity after the third cycle. Twenty-four U of immobilized enzyme at 45 °C and 1 h incubation time increased the transmittance of the apple juice by about 55% at 650 nm. The immobilized enzyme can be of industrial advantage in terms of sturdiness, availability, inertness, low price, reusability and temperature stability.

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A lipase from the thermophilic isolate Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 was produced and purified. The enzyme was purified 40-fold to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. Its molecular weight was 31 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified lipase was immobilized on silica and its binding efficiency was found to be 60%. The enzyme took 60 min to bind maximally onto the support. The pH and temperature optima of immobilized lipase were same as those of the free enzyme, i.e. 8.5 and 55ºC, respectively.  The immobilized enzyme had shown marked thermostability on the elevated temperatures of 55, 60, 65 and 70ºC. The immobilized enzyme was reused for eigth cycles as it retained almost 80% of its activity. The catalytic activity of immobilized enzyme was enhanced in n-hexane and ethanol. The immobilized enzyme when used for esterification of ethanol and propionic acid showed 96% conversion in n-hexane in 12 h at 55ºC.

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