The Sanandaj-Sirjan granitoids (SSG) in western Iran are composed mainly of granite, granodiorite and tonalite. Chemically the rocks are peraluminous and metaluminous, and show S-and I-type characteristics. The oval shape of the plutons, with large axes parallel to the Zagros main trend, along with deformational textures and structures, the existence of aluminous minerals such as andalusite, garnet and sillimanite as well as micaceous enclaves and geochemical features, all support generation of these rocks by partial melting of heterogeneous source materials in a continental collision setting, corresponding to the Zagros Orogen.
The Kaleybar nepheline syenite intrusion forms the largest silica undersaturated alkaline exposure in northwestern Iran. It consists of various rock types ranging from nepheline syenite to nepheline diorite that were emplaced during Eocene-Oligocene times, corresponding to the Alpine orogeny. The essential rock-forming minerals in nepheline syenite are plagioclase, K-feldspar, nepheline and amphibole. Clinopyroxene is the dominant phase in nepheline diorites. Titanian garnet occurs as an uncommon accessory phase forming reddish to deep brown individual grains.
Chemically it is intermediate between Ti-andradite (67 to 78 mole %) and grossular (21 to 33 mole %) with TiO2 contents ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 wt %. Stoichiometry and R-mode factor analysis on garnet chemistry show that the dominant exchange vectors are Si-Ti and Al-Fe substitutions in the tetrahedral and octahedral crystal sites, respectively. A magmatic origin of the investigated Ti-garnet is suggested on the basis of mineralogical criteria and chemical properties.
The Zagros Orogenic Belt includes the Fold and Thrust Belt, the High Zagros Belt, the Outer Zagros Ophiolitic Belt, the Sanandaj–Sirjan Metamorphic Belt, the Inner Zagros Ophiolitic Belt, and the Urumieh–Dokhtar Magmatic Belt. We divide the High Zagros evolutionary history into five stages: (1) triple junction formation, (2) continental lithosphere rifting, (3) generation, spreading, and maturation of the Neotethys Ocean, (4) subduction of the oceanic lithosphere, and (5) collision. The Neotethys triple junction, located at the southeastern corner of the Arabian Plate, formed during the Late Silurian–Early Carboniferous. Subsequently, this triple junction became a rift basin due to normal faulting and basalt eruption. The rifting stage occurred during the Late Carboniferous–Early Permian. Thereafter, extension of the basin continued, leading to spreading and maturation of the Neotethys oceanic basin during the Late Permian–Late Triassic. Probably at the end of the Late Triassic, closure of the Paleotethys Basin caused the initiation of two northeastward subductions: (1) oceanic–oceanic and (2) oceanic–continental. Oceanic–oceanic subduction continued until the Late Cretaceous and was terminated by the emplacement of the Outer Zagros Ophiolites, whereas oceanic–continental subduction continued until the Middle Miocene. Subduction in the southern Neotethys Basin between the Arabian and Central Iran Plates caused a tensional regime between Sanandaj–Sirjan and Central Iran, and the formation of a back-arc basin that by its closing led to the emplacement of the Inner Zagros Ophiolites during the Late Cretaceous.