Once thought a rarely used drug, LSD use is steadily increasing among US adults. A greater understanding of social factors and psychological determinants leading to lifetime LSD use can assist health educators and professionals in treating this growing problem. This study analyzed psychosocial factors related to LSD use among a national sample of adults.
A secondary data analysis of the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed.
Results from the final multivariate logistic regression revealed that those who were male, African American or Hispanic, used alcohol, ecstasy, marijuana, inhalants, cocaine, and cigarettes before the age of 21 years, thought about suicide, got a kick out of doing things risky, and tested oneself to do risky things were more likely to use LSD.
This suggests that psychodynamic processes, for example, possible activation of emotional conflicts – can take place spontaneously – during ayahuasca intake in this particular setting. Some participants attributed symbolic meaning to the visionary content, which was more likely to take place in psychotherapeutically motivated clients. The specific setting influence as well as corresponding expectations of the participants in native wisdom could have considerable influence on experiences and interpretations, such as communication with entities as well as receiving personal teachings.
The popularity of video gaming has generated significant interest in research methods to examine motivations for gaming. Current measures of gaming motives are limited by lack of scope and/or their applicability to specific game genres only. We aimed to create a comprehensive motivation inventory applicable to any gaming genre and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a large sample of highly engaged video gamers.
Stage 1 of this project involved a systematic review that generated the items for the Gaming Motivation Inventory (GMI). Stages 2–4 involved an evaluation of the psychometric properties of the GMI. A sample of 14,740 video gamers (89.3% male; mean age 24.1 years) were recruited via an online survey promoted by a popular gaming magazine.
In Stage 2, twenty-six gaming motives were identified, which clustered into six higher-order dimensions (Mastery, Immersion/Escapism, Competition, Stimulation, Social, Habit/Boredom). In Stage 3, construct validity of the six higher-order motives was assessed by associations with gaming-related, personality, and psychological variables. In Stage 4, the relationships between motives and depression symptoms and gaming disorder symptoms were explored. Although gaming motives had weak associations with gaming genres, they were moderately related to variables such as competitiveness, sociability, and positive and negative affect. Gaming disorder symptoms were directly predicted by depression symptoms and indirectly via Immersion/Escapism, Habit/Boredom, and Competition motives.
Discussion and conclusions
These findings support the notion that motives are one of the primary causes of gaming behavior and play an important role in predicting its problematic nature. The GMI is a psychometrically valid tool that will be useful for gaining insights into factors underlying gaming behaviors.