This paper examines general characteristics of African science from a quantitative ‘scientometric’ perspective. More specifically,
that of research outputs of Africa-based authors published in the scientific literature during the years 1980–2004, either
within the international journals representing ‘mainstream’ science, or within national and regional journals reflecting ‘indigenous
science’. As for the international journals, the findings derived from Thomson Scientific’s Citation Indexes show that while
Africa’s share in worldwide science has steadily declined, the share of international co-publications has increased very significantly,
whereas low levels of international citation impact persist. A case study of South African journals reveals the existence
of several journals that are not processed for these international databases but nonetheless show a distinctive citation impact
on international research communities.
The aim of this study is to contribute to the debate on the relationship between scientific mobility and international collaboration.
This case study deals with leading Chinese researchers in the field of plant molecular life sciences who returned to their
home country. A correlation analysis of their mobility history, publication output, and international co-publication data,
shows the relationship between scientific output, levels of international collaboration and various individual characteristics
of returned researchers. The outcome of the analysis suggests that while host countries may loose human capital when Chinese
scientists return home, the so-called “return brain drain”, they may also gain in terms of scientific linkages within this
rapidly emerging and globalizing research field.
Authors:Clara Calero, Thed van Leeuwen, and Robert Tijssen
Bio-pharmaceutical R&D is increasingly an international affair. Research articles published in the peer-reviewed international
scientific and technical journals represent quantifiable research outputs of bio-pharmaceutical firms. Large-scale systemic
measurements of worldwide trends and sectoral patterns within bio-pharmaceutical science can be gauged from these articles,
where coauthored research papers are assumed to reflect research cooperation and associated knowledge flows and exchanges.
We focus our attention on the largest science-based multinational enterprises (MNEs), those that produce relatively large
quantities of research articles. The study deals with the worldwide output of research articles that are co-produced by corporate
researchers during the years 1996–2001.
We employ these publications to examine structural factors characterizing research cooperation networks within industry at
the level of major geographical regions (North America, Europe, Pacific-Asia), with a breakdown by within-MNE and between-MNE
network linkages. The descriptive statistics on publication output and results of network analyses of co-publication linkages
not only indicate regional differences, with a central role for US companies in biopharmaceutical research, but also a variety
of firm-specific research cooperation networks which enabled us to develop a tentative typology of MNEs in terms of their
intra- and interorganizational patterns of research cooperation linkages.
Authors:Robert Tijssen, Martijn Visser, and Thed van Leeuwen
This paper introduces a citation-based "systems approach" for analyzing the various institutional and cognitive dimensions
of scientific excellence within national research systems. The methodology, covering several aggregate levels, focuses on
the most highly cited research papers in the international journal literature. The distribution of these papers across institutions
and disciplines enables objective comparisons their (possible) international-level scientific excellence. By way of example,
we present key results from a recent series of analyses of the research system in the Netherlands in the mid 1990s, focussing
on the performance of the universities across the various major scientific disciplines within the context of the entire system"s
scientific performance. Special attention is paid to the contribution in the world"s top 1% and top 10% most highly cited
research papers. The findings indicate that these high performance papers provide a useful analytical framework - both in
terms of transparency, cognitive and institutional differentiation, as well as its scope for domestic and international comparisons
- providing new indicators for identifying "world class" scientific excellence at the aggregate level. The average citation
scores of these academic "Centres of Scientific Excellence" appear to be an inadequate predictor of their production of highly
cited papers. However, further critical reflection and in-depth validation studies are needed to establish the true potential
of this approach for science policy analyses and evaluation of research performance.
Authors:Robert J. W. Tijssen and Thed N. Van Leeuwen
This paper introduces a citation-based metholodology to characterize and measure the magnitude and intensity of knowledge
flows and knowledge spillovers from the public research sector to basic and strategic research in the private sector. We present
results derived from an interrelated series of statistical analyses based on Private-to-Public Citations (PrPuCs) within reference
lists of the research articles produced by industrial researchers during the years 1996-2003. The first part of the results
provides an overview of PrPuC statistics worldwide for OECD countries. Overall, 70% to 80% of those references within corporate
research papers relate to papers produced by public research organizations. When controlling for the size of their public
sector research bases, Switzerland and the United States appear to be the major suppliers of 'citable' scientific knowledge
for industrial research - the value of their Corporate Citation Intensity (CCI) exceeds their statistically expected value
by more than 25%. A country's CCI performance turns out to be closely related to the citation impact of the entire domestic
science base. The second section deals with an exploratory case study devoted to Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications,
one of the corporate sector's major research areas. The findings include a list of the major citing and cited sources at the
level of countries and organizations, as well as an analysis of PrPuCs as a “missing link”connection intra-science citations
and citations received from corporate science-based patents.
Authors:Thed Van Leeuwen, Henk Moed, Robert Tijssen, Martijn Visser, and Anthony Van Raan
Empirical evidence presented in this paper shows that the utmost care must be taken ininterpreting bibliometric data in a comparative evaluation of national research systems. From theresults of recent studies, the authors conclude that the value of impact indicators of researchactivities at the level of an institution or a country strongly depend upon whether one includes orexcludes research publications in SCI covered journals written in other languages than in English.Additional material was gathered to show the distribution of SCI papers among publicationlanguages. Finally, the authors make suggestions for further research on how to deal with this typeof problems in future national research performance studies.
Authors:Bart Van Looy, Koenraad Debackere, Julie Callaert, Robert Tijssen, and Thed van Leeuwen
Today's theories and models on innovation stress the importance of scientific capabilities and science-technology proximity,
especially in new emerging fields of economic activity. Inthis contribution we examine the relationship between national scientific
capabilities, the science intensity of technology and technological performance within six emergent industrial fields. Our
findings reveal that national technological performance is positively associated with scientific capabilities. Countries performing
better on a technological level are characterized both by larger numbers of publications and by numbers of involved institutions
that exceed average expected values. The latter observation holds for both companies and knowledge generating institutes actively
involved in scientific activities. As such, our findings seem to suggest beneficial effects of scientific capabilities shouldered
by a multitude of organizations. In addition, higher numbers of patent activity coincide with higher levels of science intensity
pointing out the relevance of science 'proximity' when developing technology in newer, emerging fields. Limitations and directions
for further research are discussed.