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  • Author or Editor: Robert Tijssen x
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Abstract  

This paper examines general characteristics of African science from a quantitative ‘scientometric’ perspective. More specifically, that of research outputs of Africa-based authors published in the scientific literature during the years 1980–2004, either within the international journals representing ‘mainstream’ science, or within national and regional journals reflecting ‘indigenous science’. As for the international journals, the findings derived from Thomson Scientific’s Citation Indexes show that while Africa’s share in worldwide science has steadily declined, the share of international co-publications has increased very significantly, whereas low levels of international citation impact persist. A case study of South African journals reveals the existence of several journals that are not processed for these international databases but nonetheless show a distinctive citation impact on international research communities.

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Abstract  

The aim of this study is to contribute to the debate on the relationship between scientific mobility and international collaboration. This case study deals with leading Chinese researchers in the field of plant molecular life sciences who returned to their home country. A correlation analysis of their mobility history, publication output, and international co-publication data, shows the relationship between scientific output, levels of international collaboration and various individual characteristics of returned researchers. The outcome of the analysis suggests that while host countries may loose human capital when Chinese scientists return home, the so-called “return brain drain”, they may also gain in terms of scientific linkages within this rapidly emerging and globalizing research field.

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Abstract  

Bio-pharmaceutical R&D is increasingly an international affair. Research articles published in the peer-reviewed international scientific and technical journals represent quantifiable research outputs of bio-pharmaceutical firms. Large-scale systemic measurements of worldwide trends and sectoral patterns within bio-pharmaceutical science can be gauged from these articles, where coauthored research papers are assumed to reflect research cooperation and associated knowledge flows and exchanges. We focus our attention on the largest science-based multinational enterprises (MNEs), those that produce relatively large quantities of research articles. The study deals with the worldwide output of research articles that are co-produced by corporate researchers during the years 1996–2001. We employ these publications to examine structural factors characterizing research cooperation networks within industry at the level of major geographical regions (North America, Europe, Pacific-Asia), with a breakdown by within-MNE and between-MNE network linkages. The descriptive statistics on publication output and results of network analyses of co-publication linkages not only indicate regional differences, with a central role for US companies in biopharmaceutical research, but also a variety of firm-specific research cooperation networks which enabled us to develop a tentative typology of MNEs in terms of their intra- and interorganizational patterns of research cooperation linkages.

Open access

Abstract  

This paper introduces a citation-based "systems approach" for analyzing the various institutional and cognitive dimensions of scientific excellence within national research systems. The methodology, covering several aggregate levels, focuses on the most highly cited research papers in the international journal literature. The distribution of these papers across institutions and disciplines enables objective comparisons their (possible) international-level scientific excellence. By way of example, we present key results from a recent series of analyses of the research system in the Netherlands in the mid 1990s, focussing on the performance of the universities across the various major scientific disciplines within the context of the entire system"s scientific performance. Special attention is paid to the contribution in the world"s top 1% and top 10% most highly cited research papers. The findings indicate that these high performance papers provide a useful analytical framework - both in terms of transparency, cognitive and institutional differentiation, as well as its scope for domestic and international comparisons - providing new indicators for identifying "world class" scientific excellence at the aggregate level. The average citation scores of these academic "Centres of Scientific Excellence" appear to be an inadequate predictor of their production of highly cited papers. However, further critical reflection and in-depth validation studies are needed to establish the true potential of this approach for science policy analyses and evaluation of research performance.

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Summary  

This paper introduces a citation-based metholodology to characterize and measure the magnitude and intensity of knowledge flows and knowledge spillovers from the public research sector to basic and strategic research in the private sector. We present results derived from an interrelated series of statistical analyses based on Private-to-Public Citations (PrPuCs) within reference lists of the research articles produced by industrial researchers during the years 1996-2003. The first part of the results provides an overview of PrPuC statistics worldwide for OECD countries. Overall, 70% to 80% of those references within corporate research papers relate to papers produced by public research organizations. When controlling for the size of their public sector research bases, Switzerland and the United States appear to be the major suppliers of 'citable' scientific knowledge for industrial research - the value of their Corporate Citation Intensity (CCI) exceeds their statistically expected value by more than 25%. A country's CCI performance turns out to be closely related to the citation impact of the entire domestic science base. The second section deals with an exploratory case study devoted to Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, one of the corporate sector's major research areas. The findings include a list of the major citing and cited sources at the level of countries and organizations, as well as an analysis of PrPuCs as a “missing link”connection intra-science citations and citations received from corporate science-based patents.

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Abstract  

Empirical evidence presented in this paper shows that the utmost care must be taken ininterpreting bibliometric data in a comparative evaluation of national research systems. From theresults of recent studies, the authors conclude that the value of impact indicators of researchactivities at the level of an institution or a country strongly depend upon whether one includes orexcludes research publications in SCI covered journals written in other languages than in English.Additional material was gathered to show the distribution of SCI papers among publicationlanguages. Finally, the authors make suggestions for further research on how to deal with this typeof problems in future national research performance studies.

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Summary  

Today's theories and models on innovation stress the importance of scientific capabilities and science-technology proximity, especially in new emerging fields of economic activity. Inthis contribution we examine the relationship between national scientific capabilities, the science intensity of technology and technological performance within six emergent industrial fields. Our findings reveal that national technological performance is positively associated with scientific capabilities. Countries performing better on a technological level are characterized both by larger numbers of publications and by numbers of involved institutions that exceed average expected values. The latter observation holds for both companies and knowledge generating institutes actively involved in scientific activities. As such, our findings seem to suggest beneficial effects of scientific capabilities shouldered by a multitude of organizations. In addition, higher numbers of patent activity coincide with higher levels of science intensity pointing out the relevance of science 'proximity' when developing technology in newer, emerging fields. Limitations and directions for further research are discussed.

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