Scientific authorship has important implications in science since it reflects the contribution to research of the different individual scientists and it is considered by evaluation committees in research assessment processes. This study analyses the order of authorship in the scientific output of 1,064 permanent scientists at the Spanish CSIC (WoS, 1994–2004). The influence of age, professional rank and bibliometric profile of scientists over the position of their names in the byline of publications is explored in three different research areas: Biology and Biomedicine, Materials Science and Natural Resources. There is a strong trend for signatures of younger researchers and those in the lower professional ranks to appear in the first position (junior signing pattern), while more veteran or highly-ranked ones, who tend to play supervisory functions in research, are proportionally more likely to sign in the last position (senior signing pattern). Professional rank and age have an effect on authorship order in the three fields analysed, but there are inter-field differences. Authorship patterns are especially marked in the most collaboration-intensive field (i.e. Biology and Biomedicine), where professional rank seems to be more significant than age in determining the role of scientists in research as seen through their authorship patterns, while age has a more significant effect in the least collaboration-intensive field (Natural Resources).
The ability of g-index and h-index to discriminate between different types of scientists (low producers, big producers, selective
scientists and top scientists) is analysed in the area of Natural Resources at the Spanish CSIC (WoS, 1994–2004). Our results
show that these indicators clearly differentiate low producers and top scientists, but do not discriminate between selective
scientists and big producers. However, g-index is more sensitive than h-index in the assessment of selective scientists, since
this type of scientist shows in average a higher g-index/h-index ratio and a better position in g-index rankings than in the
h-index ones. Current research suggests that these indexes do not substitute each other but that they are complementary.
Authors:Rodrigo Costas and Isabel Iribarren-Maestro
The CD-ROM and web versions of the Science Citation Index databases are compared as to their content and format features.
Several differences have been detected such as the use of different punctuation marks in both versions and a different organisation
of author’s affiliation data. These differences make automatic comparisons of ISI products difficult and they should be considered
when matching both databases. Some recommendations to ensure more normalisation and reliability of data are pointed out.
Authors:Rodrigo Costas, Thed van Leeuwen, and María Bordons
This paper focuses on the study of self-citations at the meso and micro (individual) levels, on the basis of an analysis of
the production (1994–2004) of individual researchers working at the Spanish CSIC in the areas of Biology and Biomedicine and
Material Sciences. Two different types of self-citations are described: author self-citations (citations received from the
author him/herself) and co-author self-citations (citations received from the researchers’ co-authors but without his/her
participation). Self-citations do not play a decisive role in the high citation scores of documents either at the individual
or at the meso level, which are mainly due to external citations. At micro-level, the percentage of self-citations does not
change by professional rank or age, but differences in the relative weight of author and co-author self-citations have been
found. The percentage of co-author self-citations tends to decrease with age and professional rank while the percentage of
author self-citations shows the opposite trend. Suppressing author self-citations from citation counts to prevent overblown
self-citation practices may result in a higher reduction of citation numbers of old scientists and, particularly, of those
in the highest categories. Author and co-author self-citations provide valuable information on the scientific communication
process, but external citations are the most relevant for evaluative purposes. As a final recommendation, studies considering
self-citations at the individual level should make clear whether author or total self-citations are used as these can affect
Authors:Rodrigo Costas, Thed N. van Leeuwen, and Anthony F. J. van Raan
The obsolescence and “durability” of scientific literature have been important elements of debate during many years, especially regarding the proper calculation of bibliometric indicators. The effects of “delayed recognition” on impact indicators have importance and are of interest not only to bibliometricians but also among research managers and scientists themselves. It has been suggested that the “Mendel syndrome” is a potential drawback when assessing individual researchers through impact measures. If publications from particular researchers need more time than “normal” to be properly acknowledged by their colleagues, the impact of these researchers may be underestimated with common citation windows. In this paper, we answer the question whether the bibliometric indicators for scientists can be significantly affected by the Mendel syndrome. Applying a methodology developed previously for the classification of papers according to their durability (Costas et al., J Am Soc Inf Sci Technol 61(8):1564–1581, ; J Am Soc Inf Sci Technol 61(2):329–339, ), the scientific production of 1,064 researchers working at the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC) in three different research areas has been analyzed. Cases of potential “Mendel syndrome” are rarely found among researchers and these cases do not significantly outperform the impact of researchers with a standard pattern of reception in their citations. The analysis of durability could be included as a parameter for the consideration of the citation windows used in the bibliometric analysis of individuals.
Authors:José Valdilânio Virgulino Procópio, Valmir Gomes de Souza, Rodrigo Albuquerque da Costa, Lidiane Pinto Correia, Fábio Santos de Souza, and Rui Oliveira Macêdo
The simvastatin (SV) is nowadays produced semi-synthetically from lovastatin. It’s one of the statins most commonly used to treat several forms of hypercholesterolemia. This study aimed to apply the thermal characterization of the SV raw material using thermoanalytical techniques and its degradation products by Pyrolysis coupled to Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (Pyr-GC/MS). It was studied three samples of SV (SVA, SVB, and SVC). The results showed thermal behavior differences of the samples during the melting process transition and the activation energies (Ea) of the thermal decomposition, which were correlated to the thermal stability of them. The first decomposition step of Pyr-GC/MS showed two new compounds of m/z 284 and 207, in proportions dependents according to the pyrolysis temperature.
Authors:Marilia Coutinho, Elizabeth Balbachevsky, Denilde Holzhacker, Diogo Da Costa Patrao, Ricardo Vencio, Rodrigo Da Silva, Márcio Lucatelli, Lucimara Dos Reis, and Maria Marin
Brazil is considered to have an immature national innovation system. One significant situation that contributes to it is that
Brazil concentrates its research efforts and inventiveness in academic environments, while the private sector has very little
access to this activity. Measures are being taken to correct this situation. Nevertheless, scientists' attitudes towards the
new situation will be instrumental for the success of such measures. For this reason, we have studied the behavior of Brazilian
scientists from the biotechnological fields concerning Intellectual Property Rights. In this research 1032 researchers were
electronically contacted and 150 responded. The 41 questions include indicators about the interviewees' perceptions about
their institutions' support for patenting research results, their attitudes towards recent changes in Intellectual Property
Rights legislation and about the interaction of researchers with demands from external interests.
Authors:Ingrid C. R. Costa, Ivaldo Itabaiana Jr., Marcella C. Flores, Ana Clara Lourenço, Selma G. F. Leite, Leandro S. de M. e Miranda, Ivana C. R. Leal, and Rodrigo O. M. A. de Souza
The use of glycerol derived from biodiesel industry is an important development to add value to this actual waste. Several products can be obtained from glycerol, but acetins are very interesting molecules with a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food, and fuel industry. Herein we report our results on biocatalyzed batch and continuous-flow process for valorization of glycerol derived from biodiesel industry towards acetin production. Excellent results can be obtained with different selectivities depending on the nature of glycerol used and reaction conditions being able to produce monoacetin, diacetin, or triacetin depending on the reaction condition.