Due to its overall environmental impact, the residual dye in the wastewater from the synthetic dye manufacturing and textile industries is a global concern. The discharge contains a high content of pigments and other additives, possessing complex structures. As per the requirement for dyed clothing, dyestuff in the effluent is less susceptible to acids, bases, and oxygen. Thus, conventional physical and chemical methods are not always efficient in degrading the dyes. Some microorganisms growing in an area affected with textile effluent have the capability to utilize the dyes as a source of carbon or nitrogen or both. As a very clean, inexpensive, and sufficient alternative, bioremediation of textile wastewater using these microorganisms has gained major popularity. This review primarily centers the contribution of bacteria in this sector and the isolation of such bacteria from textile effluent. A secondary focus is discussing the factors which influence the performance by different bacteria.
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a worldwide phenomenon in modern times, in which the dependency on antibiotics for its treatment is increasing. The current study was conducted in order to find alternatives to antibiotics by investigating some commercial fruits for their antimicrobial activity. The fruits in this study included green apple (Malus domestica), papaya (Carica papaya), lemon (Citrus limon), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), which were used to prepare methanolic and ethanolic extracts through Soxhlet extraction technique. The extracts were used against bacteria that cause UTI, and five different strains were selected: E. coli (ATCC: 15922), E. coli (ATCC: 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC: 27853), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC: 29212), and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial tests of the extracts were conducted by following the agar well diffusion method, where ciprofloxacin was used as a positive control, and autoclaved distilled water was used as a negative control. Among the fruits, apple and papaya extracts did not show any zone of inhibition against any of the tested bacteria. However, both lemon and strawberry extracts showed inhibition zone against all of the mentioned bacteria. The ethanolic extracts of lemon and strawberry were more potent than their methanolic extracts. Lemon ethanolic extract showed the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC: 27853) (18.34 ± 0.58) and lowest one against Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.00 ± 1.00). Strawberry ethanolic extracts showed the highest zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC: 27853) (16.33 ± 0.58) and the lowest one against Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.33 ± 0.58). As antibiotic resistance is paving the way for multi-drug resistant bacteria, the results of lemon and strawberry can be considered to be used as an antimicrobial agent in treating urinary tract infections.