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Central European Geology
Péter Gál
Norbert Németh
Sándor Szakáll
Norbert Zajzon
Béla Fehér
, and
István Dunkl


The foliated low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Triassic Bagolyhegy Metarhyolite Formation, mainly of pyroclastic origin, host post-metamorphic quartz-albite veins containing abundant tourmaline and occasionally rutile/ilmenite. The study of the Ti-oxide-mineralized veins with SEM-EDX revealed an unusual mineral assemblage comprising fine-grained Nb–Ta-bearing oxides (columbite-tantalite series, fluorcalciomicrolite and other Nb–Ti–Y–Fe-REE-oxide minerals) intergrown with Nb-rich polymorphs of TiO2 (anatase, rutile), ilmenite and zircon enriched with hafnium. This high field strength elements (HFSE)-bearing paragenesis is unexpected in this lithology, and was not described from any formation in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic rock suite of the Bükk Mountains (NE Hungary) before. The host metavolcanics are significantly depleted in all HFSE compared to the typical concentrations in felsic volcanics and the mineralized quartz-albite veins have even lower Ti–Nb–Ta concentration than the host rock, so the mineralization does not mean any enrichment. From proximal outcrops of the Triassic Szentistvánhegy Metavolcanics, potassic metasomatized lenses with albite-quartz vein fillings containing rutile/ilmenite are known. We studied them for comparison, but they only contain REE mineralization (allanite-monazite-xenotime); the Nb–Ta-content of Ti-oxide minerals is undetectably low. LA-ICP-MS measurements for U–Pb dating of Hf-rich zircon of the Nb–Ta-rich mineral assemblage gave 71.5 ± 5.9 Ma as lower intercept age while dating of allanite of the REE mineralized quartz-albite veins gave 113 ± 11 Ma as lower intercept age. The REE-bearing vein fillings formed during a separate mineralization phase in the Early Cretaceous, while the Nb–Ta mineralization was formed by post-metamorphic alkaline fluids in the Late Cretaceous., controlled by fault zones and fractures.

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