Payment systems make a significant contribution to the flow of transactions and financial stability. In this paper, we start by applying the principles of the gravity model to explain the TARGET flows of banking transactions between Portugal and other eurozone countries. The main explanatory variables tested are a composite indicator of economic and financial activities, distance, membership of the Eurozone (EZ), and country risk measured by treasury bond yields. The results indicate that Portugal has a high level of integration in the European banking market as distance is not statistically significant, and that the membership of the EZ facilitates the financing of the economy. The economic size of the partner country becomes non-significant after controlling for country fixed effects. The increase in the Portuguese country risk during the European sovereign debt crisis led to a marked decline in external financing, indicating that this is an important channel of transmission of crises.
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the relationship between the labour income share and financialisation, as well as other related variables in Portugal from 1978 to 2012. We estimate an equation for the labour share that includes standard variables (technological progress, globalisation, education and business cycle) and variables to capture the effect of financialisation. We formulate the hypothesis that the financialisation process may lead to a rise in the inequality of functional income distribution through three channels: the change in the sectoral composition of the economy (due to both the increase in the weight of financial activity and the decrease in government activity), the diffusion of shareholder value governance practices and the weakening of trade unions. Our results show that the financialisation process has an indirect long-term effect on the labour share through its impact on government activity and trade union density. The paper also finds evidence supporting the traditional explanations for functional income distribution, namely globalisation, education and business cycle.