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Authors: Adriana Mureşan, C. Alb, S. Suciu, S. Clichici, A. Filip, C. Login, N. Decea and T. Mocan

To estimate the effects of hydroethanolic red grapes seeds extract obtained from Vitis vinifera, Burgund Mare variety, Recaş , Romania (BMR) on oxidant-antioxidant ballance, as compared to ascorbic acid, during pregnancy in rats. Thirty Wistar female rats were assigned to three groups (n=10) which were administered by gavage: Group I, 3 × 100 mg/kg body weight saline, Group II — BMR 3 × 30 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg body weight; Group III — vitamin C 3 × 100 mg/kg body weight on days 1, 7 and 14 of pregnancy. On day 21 blood samples were collected. Malon dyaldehyde, lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls, nitric oxide (as oxidative stress parameters) and hydrogen donor ability and total thiol groups (as antioxidant parameters) serum concentrations were measured. Vitamin C significantly enhanced the antioxidant capacity of plasma (hydrogen donor ability, p=0.0001; thiol groups, p=0.0001), as well as nitric oxide levels (p=0.001). The extract increased the plasma antioxidant capacity (hydrogen donor ability, p=0.001; thiol groups p=0.001) and did not elevate the nitric oxide plasma levels in pregnant rats.In conclusion, in the chosen dose, the red grapes seed extract enhanced the plasma antioxidant capacity and did not influence the nitric oxide levels in pregnant rats.

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Authors: AE Joanta, A Filip, S Clichici, S Andrei and Cluj-Napoca Romania Cluj-Napoca Romania

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Background

To investigate the protective effects of Quercetin administration associated with chronic moderate exercise (training) on oxidative stress in the liver in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methods

Diabetic rats that performed exercise training were subjected to a swimming training program (1 hour/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks). The diabetic rats received natural antioxidant, Quercetin (20 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed and liver samples were collected for estimation: some oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA and protein carbonyls groups, PC), the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) level and reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione ratio.

Results

Diabetic rats submitted to exercise training showed significantly increased the oxidative stress markers (MDA and PC) and a reduction of antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) activity, GSH level and GSH/ GSSG ratio in hepatic tissues. A decrease in the levels of oxidative stress markers associated with elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes, the GSH level and GSH/GSSG ratio in the hepatic tissue were observed in Quercetin-treated diabetic trained rats.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that Quercetin administration in association with chronic moderate exercise exerts a protective effect in diabetes by attenuating hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress in hepatic tissue.

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Authors: Teodora Mocan, S. Clichici, L. Agoşton-Coldea, L. Mocan, Ş Şimon, I. Ilie, A. Biriş and Adriana Mureşan

Nanosized particles (NPs) have recently been proposed for extensive use, including into the biomedical field. As a result, research on toxicity and oxidative stress concerning the interaction of nanoparticle and the living organism has attracted increasing interest among specialists. Two different targets have been the motor of this type of research: 1) the safety concern regarding such NPs large-scale use along with the need to generate antidote solutions to possible adverse effects, 2) the idea of influencing oxidative damage and of using them for elaborating anticancer/antimicrobial therapies. Present study reviews recent research achievements within the proposed theme taking into account the nature and particularities of each type of nanoparticle.

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Authors: S. Maghraoui, Simona Clichici, A. Ayadi, C. Login, R. Moldovan, D. Daicoviciu, N. Decea, A. Mureşan and L. Tekaya

Aluminum (Al) and indium (In) have embryotoxic, neurotoxic and genotoxic effects, oxidative stress being one of the possible mechanisms involved in their cytotoxicity. We have recently demonstrated that indium intraperitoneal (ip) administration induced histological disorganization of testicular tissue. In the present research we aimed at investigating the effect of Al and In ip administration on systemic and testicular oxidative stress status. Studies were performed on Wistar rats ip injected with Al, In or physiological solution for two weeks. Our results showed that In significantly decreased the absolute weight of testicles. Measurements of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and paraoxonase (PON) activities showed that In induced a significant augmentation in the first parameter but no changes were observed in the second. Both Al and In caused oxidative stress in testicles by increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) production. Concomitantly, thiol group (—SH) and glutathione (GSH) level were enhanced in the testicles. In the blood, while concentrations of MDA was not changed, those of GSH was significantly decreased in the Al and In groups. Our results indicated that Al and In cause oxidative stress both in blood and testicles but In has cytotoxic effect as well as negative impact on testicle weights. These findings could explain the testicular histological alterations previously described after In ip administration.

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Authors: Simona Clichici, T. Mocan, A. Filip, A. Biris, S. Simon, D. Daicoviciu, N. Decea, A. Parvu, R. Moldovan and A. Muresan

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been proposed for various medical applications. However, their safety for human administration has not been yet fully demonstrated. In vitro studies have pointed oxidative stress as a mechanism involved in their cytotoxic effects. In the present study we have evaluated the capacity of DNA functionalized SWCNTs to induce oxidative stress in blood after intraperitoneal (ip) administration in rats. The presence of SWCNTs in blood was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy 30 minutes after their ip administration. Oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde — MDA, protein carbonyls — PC, antioxidant capacity measured as hydrogen donating capacity — HD, sulfhydryl groups — SH, glutathione — GSH and nitrites — NO) were assessed in blood at 3, 6, 24, respectively, and 48 hours after ip injection. MDA, PC and NO exhibited a significant increase at 3-6 hours interval from exposure, followed by a recovery trend. The levels of HD reached a bottom level at 6 hours after administration, while SH strongly decreased at 3 hours interval and increased slightly up to 48 hours without attending the initial values. GSH level recorded an increasing tendency at the 3rd hour, an incomplete recovery process at 24 hours followed by a secondary significant increase following a 48-hour interval. Significant inverse correlations were obtained between the PC and SH levels and between the NO and HD values. In conclusion, the ip administration of DNA functionalized SWCNT in rats results in oxidative stress generation in plasma, with a transient pattern of evolution.

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Authors: Diana Olteanu, A. Filip, A. Mureşan, A. Nagy, F. Tabaran, R. Moldovan, N. Decea, C. Catoi and S. Clichici

Inflammation and oxidative stress are important pathways in the development of liver fibrosis following biliary obstruction.Aim: To evaluate the effects of low dose dexamethasone and chitosan, a natural compound with no side-effects, on liver damage caused by bile duct ligation in rats.Materials and methods: Fifty female Wistar rats, randomly and equally divided in 5 groups: I (SHAM) underwent only laparotomy, II (BDL) with bile duct ligation, III (DEX) 0.125 mg/kg dexamethasone i.m. daily, IV (CS) 1 mg/kg chitosan by gavage and group V (DEX+CS), both substances. After six days, the following parameters were assessed from liver homogenates: malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PC), reduced glutathione (GSH), total SH groupings, nitric oxide (NO), and from plasma: MDA, γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin (TB). A histopathological examination was performed using some of the elements of the Knodell Histological Activity Index.Results: BDL significantly increases the levels of MDA, liver enzymes, and the necro-inflammatory score compared to the sham group and it decreases the antioxidant capacity. DEX protects against lipid peroxidation and improves the antioxidant capacity, but it is not able to protect the hepatocytes. Chitosan significantly decreases (p<0.05) the levels of MDA (0.07±0.01 vs 0.10±0.01 nmoles/mg protein BDL group, p=0.027) and also ALT, TB, GGT and reduces liver necrosis and inflammation (2.75±0.95 vs 1±0, p<0.05). Both CS and DEX reduce the level of NO significantly.Conclusion: BDL induces severe oxidative stress damage after six days already. Chitosan proved very efficient in protecting the hepatocytes against oxidative stress, a fact supported by the histological findings.

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