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  • Author or Editor: S Németh x
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Abstract  

A mapping is called isotone if it is monotone increasing with respect to the order defined by a pointed closed convex cone. Finding the pointed closed convex generating cones for which the projection mapping onto the cone is isotone is a difficult problem which was analyzed in [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. Such cones are called isotone projection cones. In particular it was shown that any isotone projection cone is latticial [2]. This problem is extended by replacing the projection mapping with a continuous isotone retraction onto the cone. By introducing the notion of sharp mappings, it is shown that a pointed closed convex generating cone is latticial if and only if there is a continuous isotone retraction onto the cone whose complement is sharp. This result is used for characterizing a subdual latticial cone by the isotonicity of a generalization of the positive part mapping xx +. This generalization is achieved by generalizing the infimum for subdual cones. The theoretical results of this paper exhibit fundamental properties of the lattice structure of the space which were not analysed before.

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Achillea species have been traditionally utilized as raw material for tea mixtures and pharmaceutical preparations. The most important active agent of the drug is the essential oil which influences both the aroma and the effect of the tea. Most frequent monoterpene components of the oil are 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol and α- and β-pinenes. Among sesquiterpene compounds, chamazulene, caryophyllene and oxides, as well as germacrene are to mention. Intrageneric and intraspecific chemical variability is a characteristic feature. Composition of the oil is highly variable, data on heritability are scarce. Differences in the oil composition have been detected in consequence of ontogenesis and organic differentiation. The influence of ecological factors (altitude, association, nutrients, etc.) seems to be an indirect one. Oils produced by different extraction methods, may show diverse composition.In the practice, variability of essential oil content and composition often degrades the quality of the raw materials for herbal teas. Solution may be development of agrotechnology and utilisation of standard cultivars.

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Four kinds of lamb meat foods (Wiener sausage, ham, roasted meat, and roasted leg) were developed based on 8 different genotypes to improve lamb meat quality and quantity, and to study the differences among them. The stringiness, flavour, and odour of the products were judged in food sensory evaluation by a total of 265 (60% male and 40% female) randomly selected consumers. In stringiness and flavour five (from 1 to 5), and concerning odour three (from 1 to 3) categories were created according to decreasing quality. The consumers represented different age groups: below 20 years, between 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, 61–70, and above 70 years. The groups of consumers were involved in sheep farming, other animal farming, other agriculture sector, industry, catering, education, other service; administrative department of the state, were students, and others. Analyses of variance were calculated to estimate the effects of the genotype of lamb, the gender, age, and occupation of judging consumers on the sensory evaluation of the meat foods. In conclusion, new lamb meat foods were highly appreciated by consumers, who made definite distinctions among genotypes according to flavour, stinginess, and odour. There were significant interactions between gender, age, and occupation of consumers as well as sensory evaluation of various lamb meat foods.

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Summary  

Due to the rocky neighborhood, consisting of mostly granite with high radium content, an elevated radon concentration was found in a territory of Gifu prefecture situated in the middle of Japan. Radon concentrations in water were measured and were found to be considerably high. Since indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations might be relatively high, their concentrations were also analyzed. Besides the radon and radon progeny, thoron and thoron progeny concentrations were also investigated. Dose estimations for radon and thoron in indoor air are discussed.

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A HPLC instrument was used to analyse various acid (citric, malic, succinic acid) and sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose, sorbitol) components in the fruit of three cultivars grown in Hungary (Gönci magyar kajszi, Mandulakajszi and Harcot), while the β-carotene content was analysed spectrophotometrically. Changes in the chemical content of apricot varieties have not previously been monitored in the course of ripening. The quality of various food products is greatly influenced by the chemical components of the raw materials.The cultivar Gönci magyar kajszi had exceptionally high β-carotene (3.79 mg/100 g in 90% maturity) and sugar content (sucrose: 11253.9 mg/100 g, fructose: 315.2 mg/100 g and glucose: 1434.8 mg/100 g). Mandulakajszi was the most acidic (citric acid: 1597.2 mg/100 g). The malic acid content was similar for all three varieties during ripening. In case of Harcot, the β-carotene content was high in 2008 (3.58 mg/100 g in 90% maturity), however in 2010 it was lower due to environmental influences (2.38 mg/100 g). The pH value was similar for all examined varieties in all ripening stages (3.16–3.50), the TSS/TA value was highest in the 100% mature fruit (18.41) of Gönci magyar kajszi.

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Ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.) is one of the prosperous plants for the food-industry as natural antioxidant. This fact led us to examine the chemical diversity of six ground ivy populations situated in different natural habitats and to analyse the effect of the harvesting time. Total phenolic content, chlorogenic acid, and rutin content, as well as the antioxidant capacity showed significant differences due to the harvest time. The highest total phenol content (115 mg g–1 GAE) and the strongest antioxidant activity (53.3 mg g–1 AAE) were measured in the population originated from Budapest (GLE 6), harvested in July. The highest chlorogenic acid (357 mg/100 g) and rutin (950 mg/100 g) contents were detected in the July harvested samples from the Soroksár Botanical Garden population (GLE 1). According to our results, the collection time has significant effect on the total phenolic content – first of all on the chlorogenic acid and rutin accumulation levels of ground ivy, while the influence of the habitat seems to be less important.

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A normalization method was tested for the detection of low level chromium contamination in the soil of the Tisza River Floodplain in Hungary. The soils' so-called “total” metal concentration (strong acid extractable fraction) is the basis of many environmental evaluation methods, soil tests.  In the floodplain soils cadmium, lead, zinc and copper occur in elevated concentrations, but their chromium concentration is not significantly higher than that of the control soils.  The normalization method makes it possible to calculate the anthropogenic and geogenic chromium concentration in soil. Anthropogenic chromium was not detectable on the control sites, but a significant amount (4-14 mg/kg) was found in the floodplain soil samples. The applied normalization method proved the low level chromium contamination in the floodplain.

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Hypertension is an increasing public health problem all over the world. Essential hypertension accounts for more than 90% of cases of hypertension. It is a complex genetic, environmental and demographic trait. New method in molecular biology has been proposed a number of candidate genes, but the linkage or association with hypertension has been problematic (lack of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction). It is well known that genetic influences are more important in younger hypertensives, because children are relatively free from the common environmental factors contributing to essential hypertension. The association studies compare genotype ferquencies of the candidate gene between patient groups and the controls, in pathways known to be involved in blood pressure regulation.This study examined three polymorphisms of these factors encoding genes (ET-1 G+5665T (Lys198Asn), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) T-786C promoter polymorphism and 27-bp repeat polymorphism in intron 4) in adolescents with juvenile essential and obesity-associated hypertension.Significant differences were found in the G/T genotype of the ET-1 polymorphism in the hypertensive and obese+hypertensive patients (body mass index (BMI)>30). A strong association was detected between the BMI and the polymorphism of the ET-1 gene. It seems that ET-1 gene polymorphism plays a role in the development of juvenile hypertension associated with obesity. Although no significant differences were seen in the case of the eNOS promoter polymorphism and the eNOS 4th intron 27-bp repeat polymorphism. It seems that eNOS may play a role, but this is not the main factor in the control of blood pressure; it is rather a fine regulator in this process.This study with adolescents facilitates an understanding of the genetic factors promoting juvenile hypertension and obesity.

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Developments in Health Sciences
Authors: E Burgettiné Böszörményi, S Németh, A Fodor, K Bélafiné Bakó, D Vozik, Z Csima, and I Barcs

Introduction

The prevalence of invasive fungal diseases shows an increasing trend. Due to the frequent but unprofessional usage of antifungal medications, the fungi show decreasing susceptibility towards these agents and this trend may lead to the emergence of resistant pathogens. There is a great need to develop antifungal medications with new mechanisms. One of these options is to apply proteins with natural antifungal effects. The objective was to measure the antifungal efficacy of Xenorhabdus budapestensis in vitro on clinical Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida lusitaniae, Candida krusei, Candida kefyr, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata). Materials and methods: We defined the sensitivity of the Candida species towards antibiotics. We conducted agar diffusion tests with the cleaned biopreparation of X. budapestensis (100%) and its dilutions (80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%). Zones of inhibition were measured after 24, 48, and 96 hr.

Results

Most of the tested Candida species have shown sensitivity to the biopreparation and its 40% dilution. The area of the zones of inhibition did not decrease after several days. The most sensitive species was C. lusitaniae and the least sensitive was C. krusei.

Conclusion

We assume that the proteins produced by X. budapestensis have antifungal effect, as the area of the zones of inhibition did not change.

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