The cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hübner), which migrated in the Carpathian-basin from Mediterraneum in the last decades, is becoming an increasingly serious problem for maize producers in Hungary. In several regions the damage it causes has reached the threshold of economic loss, especially in the case of the sweet maize cultivation. The aim of the research was to determine the changing of ears weights and in-kernel accumulation and alteration in grain as a function of cotton bollworm mastication.Our investigation confirmed that there is an in-kernel and protein pattern change of maize grain by cotton bollworm. Our results proved the significant damaging of each part of ears by cotton bollworm masticating (the average weight loss of ears: 13.99%; the average weight loss of grains: 14.03%; the average weight loss of cobs: 13.74%), with the exception of the increasing of the grain-cob ratio. Our examinations did not prove the water loss — that is the “forced maturing” — caused by the damage. Decreasing of raw fat (control: 2.8%; part-damaged: 2.6%; damaged: 2.4%) and starch content (control: 53.1%; part-damaged: 46.6%; damaged: 44.7%) were registered as a function of injury. In contrast, the raw protein content was increased (control: 4.7%; part-damaged: 5.3%; damaged: 7.4%) by maize ear masticating. The most conspicuous effect on protein composition changing was proved by comparison of damaged grain samples by SDS PAGE. Increased amounts of 114, 50, 46 and 35 kDa molecular mass proteins were detected which explained the more than 50% elevation of raw protein content. The statistical analysis of molecular weights proved the protein realignment as a function of the pest injuries, too.
A better understanding of the relationships between insects and microfungi could help to identify the unknown factors reducing yields in maize. As the first step in current research, the aim was to isolate the microfungal species that can be found in the larval cavity of the European corn borer (
) (ECB), one of the most important insect pests of maize. In this way, the scale of potential phytopathogens spread by intermediate hosts could be reduced.Fifty stalk sections damaged by ECB larvae were collected in autumn and fifty in spring on a 20-hectare plot in Ráksi (Somogy county). These were placed in wet chambers and incubated at room temperature under natural light. Identification was done from a pure culture inoculated into potato dextrose agar. Twenty-one species from 14 fungus genera were identified, the majority of which were mitosporic fungi. Species belonging to the
genera were predominant. Most of the species were saprotrophic, though some phytopathogenic species (
Gibberella, Colletotrichum, Nigrospora
) were also identified. The number of genera and the incidence of fungi were much higher in spring samples than in autumn ones, except for
, where incidence was lower in spring. It was found that failing to harvest the maize significantly enhanced the spread of several fungus species, especially phytopathogenic species, the following year, thereby serving as a source of infection.
The aim of present investigations was the increasing of knowledge of the cotton bollworm’s (
Hbn.) (CB) damages in the different breeding season corns. The damage examinations were made in a 29.2 hectares acreage between Igal and Kazsok villages (Somogy county) on the basis of the flight observation at the end of August 2008. We examined the measure of damages and yield losses based on the collected ears belonging to different breeding season corns (FAO 200–299, FAO 300–399, FAO 400–499, FAO 500–599). The relationship between the breeding season and the damages was examined by variance analysis (one-way anova). The collected samples were examined in analytic laboratory in order to calculate the quantitative alteration of the fundamental in-kernel air dry content values (raw protein, raw fat, starch).Our results proved the significant increasing of damage percentages (FAO 200–299: 8.66%; FAO 500–599: 15.33%), surface damages (cm
) (P = 0.026) and the calculated weight loss of damaged ears (P=0.014) parallel with the increasing of the breeding season length. We confirmed the “forced maturing” in the case of the earlier hybrids in the consequence of the damage. We recorded a decreasing percentage (correlate to the draw matter) of the starch and the raw fat (average decreasing: starch: 1.72; raw fat: 0.26) as well as the increasing starch loss per one hectare, agreeing with the breeding season length increase (starch loss/one hectare: FAO 200–299: 1.54%; FAO 500–599: 2.72%). We observed the quantitative increasing of the raw protein as a function of CB’s damage too, which can be explained by a physiological response to the biotic stress.
Authors:K. Roy, S. Basu, D. Pal, S. Lahiri and A. Ramaswami
95Tc has been produced through -particle activation of a natural niobium target. The carrier-free 95Tc radionuclide has been separated from the bulk target using tri-n-octylamine (TOA) diluted by cyclohexane as extracting agent and HCl, HNO3 as aqueous phase. Solid-liquid extraction has also been carried out with TOA impregnated Kieselguhr mineral acid system. Technetium-95 was recovered from the organic phase by stripping with 0.1M EDTA above pH 9.
Authors:S. Keszthelyi, R. Hoffmann, Zs. Pónya and F. Pál-Fám
Herbal oil vapours from Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae), and Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were tested for their toxicity against the adults of Sitophilus granarius L.. According to our hypothesis the mentioned oils can become potential bioagents against stored product pests. The results revealed that both studied essential oils exerted strongly toxic effect on S. granarius, but C. officinalis triggered higher mortality. The efficacy (94.62±2.63%) was reached after a 48-h exposure to H. rhamnoides oil at 2 ml kg–1 while the application of 2 ml kg–1 of C. officinalis oil for 24 h produced 98.94±1.00% mortality rate. Insect mortality was hyperbolically-featured, and increased with the duration of the exposure to the examined oils. Mortality was 100% at 5 ml kg–1 of H. rhamnoides after 24-h duration of its application, while with C. officinalis the same value could be reached after a 12-h exposure to the oil. The progeny pronouncedly recovered from the treatment of both essential oils applied.
Authors:R. Kundu, K. Bhattacharyya, A. Majumder and S. Pal
Arsenic, the toxic metalloid, widely available in the natural ecosystem, poses serious problem through contaminated groundwater and drinking water. The emerging areas of arsenic hazards in agricultural systems through use of contaminated irrigation water and entry of toxin in crops has been largely overlooked. Arsenic accumulation by plants and its translocation to edible parts were observed to vary within crops and also across the cultivars. Wheat is an alternative choice of summer rice, due to low water requirement. With this background, the current experiment was conducted with four popular wheat cultivars to study the arsenic accumulation and varietal tolerance under different soils and groundwater. The arsenic content was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Result revealed that, wheat cultivars differed in their grain arsenic concentration (0.23–1.22 mg kg−1), which differed across the sites and year of experiment. The arsenic translocation in wheat grains usually least, and accumulation by different tissues followed the order root > stem > leaf > grain across the cultivars. The cultivar UP-262 was found to accumulate least arsenic in grains and cultivar Kalyansona the highest under same growing condition, due to phyto-extraction or phyto-morphological potential of the varieties.
Authors:D. Chowdhury, S. Saha, Sujit Pal and P.K. Mathur
The rare earth elements (REE), Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ho, Er and Tm have been determined by charged particle activation analysis using 40 MeV a-particles through radiochemical approach. The radiochemical separation of REE as a group has been carried out from the bulk matrix. It has been shown from the theoretical computation that the products obtained from (a,xn) reactions (x = 1, 2, 3) are more suitable compared to those from (a,pyn) reactions (y = 0, 1, 2) due to the former having higher cross section (of the order of thousand millibarns).