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For a molecular genetic study on Hungarian populations of European corn borer L5 stage larvae were collected from 14 places of three different regions of the country (uni- and bivoltine ecotypes). Additionally, the study included larvae from Egypt, too (multivoltine ecotype). Molecular examinations of European corn borer larvae using the study of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) revealed that by single strand conformation polimorphism (SSCP) the populations found in Hungary represented the same haplotype. Even the Egyptian sample showed no genetic divergence. Some minor deviatons were found in the case of a sample from Székkutas, but that did not prove the genetic divergence of the bivoltine ecotype either, since the other samples of South-East Hungary did not display this kind of genetic variation. On the basis of our investigations it can be said that the univoltine and bivoltine generations, have uniform genetic complements.

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Traditionally, triticale is mainly used as animal feed, the use for human utilization is still uncertain. However, in the past few decades, importance of triticale is increasing globally. Therefore, the determination of nutritionally important parameters of triticale and study of their genetic and environmental (G×E) variability have essential importance. In this study, ten hexaploid triticales along with reference wheat and rye varieties were grown at two locations in Hungary in a three-year-long experiment. Crude protein (8.6–16.3%), crude fat (0.86–1.98%), starch (57.6–65.0%), and dietary fibre values (7.5–13.7%) showed notable differences, significant genotype control were detected in all tested parameters except ash content (1.42–2.10%). The analysis of variance confirmed that crop year affected all traits, and also location had significant effect on the formation of protein and – to a lesser extent – the fibre levels. Furthermore, interactions between the effects were observed. Generally, nutritional characteristics of triticales were positioned between wheat and rye in this experiment; however, there were notable differences between the genotypes, and also the magnitudes of environmental effects were significant. Nutritional values of triticale provide a prospect for food production and human consumption.

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As locus-specific co-dominant PCR-based markers that allow semi-automated, high-throughput investigation technologies, microsatellites are ideal tools for genotype identification. Eleven of a set of 114 microsatellite markers available at the Agricultural Biotechnology Center proved to be suitable to distinguish between the parents of at least one of nine sweet pepper hybrid combinations. Markers with the highest information capacity were found to be capable of distinguishing between the parents of four different hybrid combinations and exhibited up to four different alleles in 18 haplotypes.

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Plankton samples collected from a yellow watered bog pool of the mesotrophic “Călăţele Pădurii” peat bog (Romanian Western Mountains, Transylvania), exhibited an outstandingly rich Mallomonas population. The observations carried out by light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the population belongs to Mallomonas intermedia Kisselev. Based on the presence of lance head bristles, distributed all over the cell armour (except few anterior collar, unilaterally serrated ones), it became evident that the population belong to the nominate variety (var. intermedia). Mallomonas intermedia var. saliceaensis formerly described from Transylvania differs by the type variety by the presence of exclusively serrated bristles. The present finding proved that Mallomonas intermedia could not be properly identified at infraspecific level solely based on the ultra structure of scales, without knowing the structure of bristles, too.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
L.B.S. Sabino
,
M.L.C. Gonzaga
,
D.J. Soares
,
A.C.S. Lima
,
J.S.S. Lima
,
M.M.B. Almeida
,
P.H.M. Sousa
, and
R.W. Figueiredo

This study is aimed at performing the determination of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and the identification of the minerals in the flours produced with the tropical fruit peels of mango, papaya, melon, and pineapple. The results showed that the papaya peel flour has the highest amount of ascorbic acid and lycopene when compared with the other studied flours. The mango peel flour has a high content of total extractable polyphenols and a high antioxidant activity. Regarding the mineral content, the by-product of melon stood out with 523.24±26.12 mg/100 g of potassium, 104.15±3.52 mg/100 g of calcium and 6.62±0.30 mg/100 g of iron. The flours prepared with mango, papaya, melon, and pineapple peels are potential sources of bioactive compounds and minerals, also presenting good antioxidant activity, being, therefore, recommended to be used in food products to improve the nutritional quality of the product.

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