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  • Author or Editor: S. İlhan x
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The effects of waterlogging (WL) and WL plus nitric oxide (WL+NO) were investigated in seedlings of one wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum cv. Dogankent) and one wheat line (Triticum aestivum cv. Ducula-4). Under WL conditions, catalase activity was greater in Ducula-4 than in Dogankent. Glutathione reductase activity increased in Ducula-4 seedlings under WL+NO conditions, especially at 48 and 72 hours of treatment. Myb2 expression increased during the early hours of treatment in both wheat varieties exposed to WL, with 40-fold higher levels in Ducula-4, gradually decreasing to control levels. Under WL+NO treatment, Myb2 expression increased 44-fold at 12 hours and high levels of expression were still observed at 72 hours. When Ducula-4 seedlings were subjected to WL+NO treatment, PDPK expression increased approximately 15-fold at 3 hours and decreased to control levels at 72 hours. Under the same conditions, SST1 expression increased 3-fold at 3 and 12 hours and reached control levels during the subsequent hours. Among the genes studied, the highest level of expression was observed for Myb2. Moreover, gene expression was altered most by waterlogging in Ducula-4 seedlings.

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Abstract

Wafer cream is an important product used in many foods, especially confectionery products, and consumed with delight. Therefore, nutritional enrichment of this product is of great importance. In this study, a new functional product was developed by adding carob molasses pulp (CMP) flour obtained from carob fruit, which has unique nutritional and bioactive properties, to wafer cream, increasing its nutritional value and antioxidant activity. When 15% CMP flour was added to the wafer cream formulation, there was an increase of approximately 58.43 and 78.77%, respectively, in total polyphenol and antioxidant levels compared to the control group (without CMP flour). In addition, since the product developed is in cocoa colour, consumer preference has increased. It has been determined that phytochemical and nutritive components of the wafer cream increased as a result of the use of carob flour.

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Levels of Na, K, Ca, Mg, N, Cu and Zn of propolis samples originating from different geographic locations of Turkey were investigated. Sodium was the most abundant element in the samples. The calcium content was found between 0.118-0.0793 mg g-1. The highest magnesium content was found in samples from Yozgat region, whereas the lowest was in those of Adana region. Potassium content changed between 0.121-0.364 mg g-1. There were no statistical differences in nitrogen levels. Interestingly, no sulphur (S) was detected in propolis samples. The copper and zinc content changed between 0.045-0.096 mg g-1, 0.176-0.676 mg g-1, respectively. Finally, mineral content of Turkish propolis was about the same as the commercial propolises from other countries. The content of Cu in propolises was generally within safe limits, and compared well with levels in foods from Turkish Food Codex, though Zn contents were high.

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