Gallium phosphide is a new type of semi-conductor material. Although this substance becomes highly radioactive after neutron
irradiation, because of the nature of its component elements (gallium and phosphorus) the chances were that the great sensitivity
of the neutron activation technique would at least partly solve this very difficult trace analysis problem. The possibilities
of non-destructive analysis of long lived elements (Co−Sb−Sc−Zn−Fe...) were investigated first. To extend this method to the
determination of medium-life elements, different methods of radiochemical separation plan was worked out. Finally the method
developed gives quantitative analysis of fourteen elements (Ag−As−Au−Ba−Co−Cr−Cu−Fe−Ir−Na−Rb−Sb−Sc−Zn) amounting very often
less than one ppb.
Authors:K. Sen, Manju L. Agarwal, and S. Chakraborty
In this paper, joint distributions of number of success runs of length k and number of failure runs of length k' are obtained by using combinatorial techniques including lattice path approach under Pólya-Eggenberger model. Some of its particular cases, for different values of the parameters, are derived. Sooner and later waiting time problems and joint distributions of number of success runs of various types until first occurrence of consecutive success runs of specified length under the model are obtained. The sooner and later waiting time problems for Bernoulli trials (see Ebneshahrashoob and Sobel ) and joint distributions of the type discussed by Uchiada and Aki  are shown as particular cases. Assuming Ln and Sn to be the lengths of longest and smallest success runs, respectively, in a sample of size n drawn by Pólya-Eggenberger sampling scheme, the joint distributions of Ln and Sn as well as distribution of M=max(Ln,Fn)n, where Fn is the length of longest failure run, are also obtained.
Authors:S. Thomas, S. K. Paul, A. Agarwal, and C. S. Mathela
Galantamine hydrobromide was subjected to oxidative stress degradation using hydrogen peroxide and analyzed as per the chromatographic conditions described in European Pharmacopoeia. The drug showed considerable degradation at ambient temperature resulting in the formation of two degradation products at relative retention times (RRTs) 0.63 and 2.52. The minor degradant at RRT 0.63 was identified as galantamine N-oxide. The principal degradant formed at RRT 2.52 was found to be unknown and has not been reported previously. The unknown impurity was identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) followed by isolation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated impurity was characterized using one-dimensional, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1D and 2D NMR) and elemental analysis (EA). The principal degradant was found to be formed due to the generation of bromine and subsequent attack on the aromatic ring via in situ reaction between hydrogen bromide and hydrogen peroxide. The unknown impurity was characterized as (4aS,6R,8aS)-5,6,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-1-bromo-3-methoxy-11-methyl-4aH-benzofuro [3a,3,2-ef]  benzazepin-6-ol.
Authors:C. Agarwal, S. Chaudhury, T. Nathaniel, and A. Goswami
Apparent mass method (Venkataraman and Croft, Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A 505:527, <cite>2003</cite>), initially standardized for the assay of Pu (Agarwal et al., J Nucl Mater 651:386, <cite>2007</cite>) has been used to get Pu amount in empty stainless steel boxes generally used for storing and transferring plutonium oxide
powders. The results have been compared with the neutron coincidence counting results and have been found to match well. The
advantage of the method is that it can be used for any sample with nonstandard geometry and with uncertain source distribution.
Authors:G. Agarwal, R. F. Speyer, and W. S. Hackenberger
A fast-firing shrinkage rate controlled dilatometer was developed as a tool for optimizing sintering of powder compacts. The instrument described in this work features an infrared imaging radiation furnace and a low thermal mass dilatometer assembly which allowed controlled heating and cooling rates of up to 500°C min−1. Shrinkage control was accomplished using a computer interfaced PID control algorithm. Adjustments were made to hardware and software which reduced specimen creep under dilatometer pushrod load, eliminated non-uniform pushrod expansion, fostered reproducible specimen temperature determination, accounted for thermal expansion during sintering, and generated instantaneous termination of sintering at the specified end of RCS. Tests performed on ZnO samples demonstrated very rapid thermal response and excellent shrinkage control.
Authors:Sanhita Chaudhury, Chhavi Agarwal, A. Goswami, Amol Mhatre, Manohar Gathibandhe, and S. Dash
CdZnTe detector was used to monitor the radioactivity at several locations of primary heat transport (PHT) system of the Tarapur
Atomic Power Station-III & IV reactor during shut down as well as operating condition of the reactor. Dose measurements at
the same locations were also carried out using a teletector. MCNP code was used to simulate the detector efficiency for the
required counting geometry. The efficiencies were then used to convert the experimental count rates (cps) to corresponding
activity concentration (Bq/mL) of different radionuclides in coolant water. The total dose rates in these locations were also
calculated by summing up the simulated dose rates of individual γ ray energy. The simulated and the measured total dose rates were found to be in reasonably good agreement.
Authors:C. Agarwal, A. Goswami, P. Kalsi, S. Singh, A. Mhatre, and A. Ramaswami
Cumulative yields of 27 fission products have been determined in 229Th(n,f) by recoil catcher technique followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Absolute fission yields were arrived at from the fission
rate measured by track etch counting method. Mass yields were obtained from the cumulative yields using the charge distribution
parameters reported in the literature. The values agree well with the reported values obtained both by physical and radiochemical
methods. The resulting asymmetric mass distribution shows strong fluctuation in the yields in the light and heavy wings with
a periodicity of five mass units.
Authors:D. Das, S. Tamuly, M. Das Purkayastha, B. Dutta, C. Barman, D.J. Kalita, R. Boro, and S. Agarwal
Green tea or its concentrated extract is coveted for its health promoting catechin-like polyphenols, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). However, its amicable efficacy is now being doubted considering the recent occurrence of several cases of hepato- and nephrotoxicity, after the ingestion of EGCG-fortified (≥85–90%) nutritional supplements. Therefore, the current study was carried out to ascertain the effect of green tea leaves extract (GTE), having low EGCG content (73.8%), on liver and kidney functions of male Wistar rats using various in vivo experiments and in vitro radical scavenging activity. In terms of acute toxicity, GTE was observed to be safe when delivered at a dosage of 2000 mg kg−1 body weight (BW). Oral delivery of GTE for 28 days at a concentration of 200 mg kg−1 BW/day did not trigger sub-acute toxicity to the liver and kidneys, as per serum biochemical analyses and histopathological examination. In contrast, GTE counteracted the effects of carbon tetrachloride (a potent hepato-degenerative compound) on the liver. Furthermore, increase in high-density lipoprotein―cholesterol with concomitant lowering of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein―cholesterol were noticed in GTE-treated rats. These findings suggest that low EGCG containing GTE, with appreciable antioxidant activity (IC50 = 53.18–71.28 μg mL−1), can serve as a hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, and hypocholesterolemic ingredient.
Authors:D. Hoffman, R. Henderson, K. Gregorich, D. Bennett, R. Chasteler, C. Gannett, H. Hall, D. Lee, M. Nurmia, S. Cai, R. Agarwal, A. Charlop, Y. Chu, G. Seaborg, and R. Silva
The isotope260Lr, produced in reactions of18O with249Bk, was used to perform chemical experiments on lawrencium to learn more about its chemical properties. These experiments involved extractions with thenoyl trifluoroacetate, elutions from cation exchange resin columns with ammonium alpha-hydroxyisobutyrate, and reverse-phase chromatography using hydrogen di(2-ethylhexyl) orthophosphoric acid to investigate the chemical properties of Lr. The results from the elutions gave information about the ionic radius of Lr(III) which was found to elute very close to Er. An attempt to reduce Lr(III) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride was unsuccessful.