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  • Author or Editor: S. Ahmed x
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Abstract  

Open cell polyurethane foam coated with long chain tertiary amines (Adogen) has been shown to be an effective extractant for uranium in acidic solutions (3>pH>1). With dodecyl alcohol present uranium extraction at pH<1 is effective. The coated foam allowed column flow extraction at high flow rates but capacity studies indicated that only a fraction (about 1/3 to 1/2) of the amine was available for the complexation of the uranium. Interference of some common metal cations indicated that only Co(II) showed a significant adverse effect on the uranium extraction.

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Abstract  

Extraction of Pr(III), Ho(III) and Er(III) has been studied in the pH range of 1–10 with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) in benzene. The separation was found to be quantitative in borate media from pH 7 to 10, at an ionic strength of 0.1M (H+, BO3 3–). The stoichiometric composition of the complexes under the optimal conditions of shaking time, pH and reagent concentration was formulated using slope analysis and found to be M(BPHA)3, where M=Pr(III), Ho(III) and Er(III). The effect of various masking agents shows that citrate, ascorbate, EDTA, oxalate, fluoride and phosphate form stable complexes with these rare earths as compared to BPHA. The decontamination factors for different cations with respect to these rare earths under the optimum conditions have been evaluated.

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A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure has been applied to investigate 40 major, minor, and trace impurities in nickel-based alloy. The extensive use of these alloys in the electronic industry, telecommunications, manufacturing of aircraft engine turbine blades and chemical equipments desires for their precise characterization. The concentration of nickel in the nickel-based alloy was found to be 56.8%, whereas Fe, Cr, Ca, Mg, Ce, Mn, Na and V were the major components of the alloy, which constituted to more than 26%. The rest of the elements was present in minor or trace levels. Most of the rare earth elements except Ce were also present in trace amounts. Neutron activation analysis technique was preferably used because of its good sensitivity and multielement determination capabilities for the characterization of high purity materials. The comparison of RNAA and INAA indicated improvement in the detection limits utilizing radiochemical separation procedures developed in the present work.

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Abstract  

Thermokinetic parameters of the solid-state of poly(o-toluidine) (POT) doped with perchloric (HClO4) acid was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) under non-isothermal conditions. Molecular mechanics (MM) calculations suggest that the optimal geometric structure (OMG) of the HClO4-doped POT is at least four orders of magnitude more stable than the molecular geometric (MG) structure. These calculations indicate that the potential energy (PE/kJ mol−1) of the OMG is about four (1.09·104) orders of magnitude lower than the MG structure of the same matrix. The empirical formula of the doped polymer is best represented by [POT-2HClO4·2H2O]n as substantiate by elemental analysis and MM calculations. The full polymer decomposition and degradation were found to occur in three stages during the temperature increase. The decomposition activation energy (E d) of HClO4-doped POT matrix was calculated by employing different approximations. The heating rate (α) of the decomposition and the frequency factor (K o) were calculated. A number of equations were used to evaluate the kinetic parameters. The mechanism of the degradation of the conducting polymer is explained on the basis of their kinetic parameters. A remarkable heating rate dependence of the decomposition rate was observed.

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Abstract  

The uptake of Zn(II)-SCN complex onto polyurethane foam (PUF) has been investigated in detail with respect to different composition and variable concentration of electrolyte, zinc, thiocyanate ions and PUF, and equilibration time. The sorption data followed both Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption isotherms over the entire concentration range of zinc investigated whereas Freundlich sorption isotherm is obeyed upto 13.6.10-3M concentration. The Langmuir constants Q = 202±7 mmole.g-1 and of b = (1.78±0.31.104 dm3.mole-1 and of D-R paraneter X m = 493±1 mmole.g-1, b = activity coefficient = -0.028±0.0002 and of sorption energy E = 13.2±0.5 kJ.mole-1 and Freundlich constants 1/n = 0.42±0.03 and c m = 6.47±1.7 mmole.g-1 were evaluated. The influence of temperature variation on sorption have yielded DH = -77.5±2.9 kJ.mole-1, DS = -5±0.09 J.mole-1.K-1 and DG = -6.67±0.05 kJ.mole-1. The effect of common anions and cations on the sorption has been examined. Sulphate, ascorbate and bromide ions enhances the sorption to some extent whereas nitrite, Pb(II), Fe(III), Al(III), Cu(II) and Co(II) decrease to sorption significantly. A possible mechanism has been envisaged for Zn(II)-SCN sorption onto PUF.

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Abstract  

The sorption of 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 103Pd, 110Ag and 203Hg radionuclides by polyurethane foam (PUF) was investigated and optimized with respect to the selection of appropriate sorptive medium, metal, thiocyanate ions (except for 110Ag) and PUF concentration and equilibration time. The influence of common anions and cations on the sorption of each metal was examined. The sorption data subjected to different sorption isotherms have shown that the sorption of all the radionuclides followed Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The sorption capacity intensity and energy were evaluated for each element studied. The variation of sorption with temperature was monitored for all radionuclides except zinc and selenium. The values of H, S and G were estimated and found to be negative indicating exothermic and spontaneous nature of sorption. It was found that PUF is an effective and economical sorbent for traces of metal ions which can be used for the separation/preconcentration of these ions from their very dilute solutions and has useful applications in radioanalytical and environmental chemistry and in radioactive and industrial liquid waste management.

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Abstract  

Liquid — liquid extraction of Ag(I) by diphenyl-2-pyridylmethane (DPPM) in benzene from aqueous nitric and sulfuric acid solutions containing thiocyanate ions has been studied at ambient temperature (24±2 °C). The metal is extracted quantitatively from 0.01M HNO3+0.02M KSCN; or 0.25M H2SO4+0.02M KSCN by 0.1M DPPM (optimum extraction conditions). Slope analysis indicates that two types of ion-pair complexes i.e. [(DPPMH)+·Ag(SCN) 2 ] and [(DPPMH) 2 + ·Ag(SCN) 3 2– ] are involved in the extraction process. Separation factors determined at optimum conditions reveal the separation of Ag(I) from Cs(I), Br(I), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), Au(III) (from HNO3 solution only), Cr(III), Hf(IV), Ta(V), Sn(IV) and Cr(VI). With the exception of thiosulfate, other complexing anions like ascorbate, acetate, citrate, oxalate do not hinder the extraction of Ag(I) under optimum conditions.

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Abstract  

A method has been developed for the removal of cesium from the aqueous radioactive waste using a composite ion-exchanger consisting of Copper-Ferrocyanide Powder (CFC) and Polyurethane (PU) Foam. Polyvinyl acetate has been used as a binder in the preparation of CFC-PU foam. The physical properties of CFC such as density, surface area, IR stretching frequency and lattice parameters have been evaluated and also its potassium and copper(II) content have been estimated. Optimization of loading of CFC on PU foam has been studied. The CFC-PU was viewed under microscope to find out the homogeneity of distribution. Exchange capacities of the CFC-PU foam in different media have been determined and column studies have been carried out. Studies have been undertaken on extraction of cesium from CFC foam and also on digestion of spent CFC-PU foam and immobilization of digested solution in cement matrix. The cement matrices have been characterized with respect to density, bio-resistance and leaching resistance.

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Abstract  

The concentration and the sources of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) in house dust samples of nine selected houses of Jalil Town, Gujranwala, Pakistan are determined and a comparison with the concentration of these metals in respective street dust samples is given. Sources, exterior as well as interior are identified. The extent of contribution of lead in house dust from exterior sources and interior sources is calculated by determining the isotopic ratios in house dust, street dust and paint used in the houses. It is noticed in the case of well ventilated houses, that most of the heavy metal contribution is from the exterior sources. However, in less ventilated houses, contribution from the interior sources is also significant.

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Abstract  

Et(Ind)2ZrCl2 and MAO co-catalyst, which polymerize ethylene and propylene, were heterogenized on partially dehydroxylated Davison silica 955, following the method of equilibrium adsorption. The dispersion of these catalyst components on the silica support was investigated by measuring the spatial concentration profiles of Si, Al, and Zr using a micro-PIXE technique. These components were found to be uniformly distributed over the support irrespective of the variation in the heterogenization procedures and the experimental conditions used. The Si∶Al ratios determined by the micro-PIXE technique were similar to those measured by the spectrophotometric method. However, the Al∶Zr ratios measured by the former were somewhat lower than those determined by the latter. Micro-PIXE measurements confirmed the presence of several trace impurities such as K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn which may potentially poison the resulting catalyst.

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