The thermal behavior of Nafion-117 membranes was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TG measurements revealed that the mechanism of thermal degradation of a Nafion membrane in the acid form is different from that of Nafion in the sodium form. The DSC curves for the first heating, for both acid and salt forms, display two endothermic peaks, near 120 and 230°C. The high-temperature peak was assigned to the crystalline domains melting in Nafion, and the low-temperature peak was attributed to a transition into ionic clusters, since this transition exhibits significant changes depending on the nature of the counterion and the degree of hydration.
The Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) is a 1 MW swimming pool type reactor, operating since the early 1960s. The fuel is MTR type, with flat plates of U-Al alloy enriched to 93% in 235U. As the core configuration changed in April 2000, it became essential to characterise the neutron field in the most useful irradiation positions of RPI, in order to guarantee the accuracy in the application of k0-neutron activation analysis (k0-NAA). Experimental values of the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and of the deviation of the epithermal neutron spectrum from the 1/E shape (a) were determined using the Cd-ratio for multi-monitor method. The neutron temperature (Tn) was obtained from co-irradiation of Lu with 1/v
monitors. The results for several irradiation positions are presented and discussed in this work. Some element concentrations are determined based on the parameters obtained in this work, and compared with the certified reference material concentrations.
A Gent stacked filter unit sampler was used to collect air particulate matter (APM) in separate coarse (PM2.5–10) and fine (PM2.5) size fractions, at a sub-urban site in Lisbon, Portugal. The sampling was done during the year 2001 and two daily samples
were taken per week. The filters were analyzed for particulate mass by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The
chemical analysis of APM levels and the study of the atmospheric dynamics by back-trajectories showed that most of the PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 peaks events were associated with air masses transport from the Saharan desert. High mineral load in ambient particulate
matter levels were registered during the Saharan dust outbreaks. The accuracy of INAA to measure Fe, Sc and Sm was evaluated
by NIST filter standards, revealing results with an agreement of ± 10%. This method constituted an important tool to identify
Authors:N. Canha, M. Freitas, S. Almeida, M. Almeida, M. Ribeiro, C. Galinha, and H. Wolterbeek
Total particulate matter (TPM) was passively collected inside two classrooms of each of five elementary schools in Lisbon,
Portugal. TPM was collected in polycarbonate filters with a 47 mm diameter, placed inside of uncovered plastic petri dishes.
The sampling period was from 19 May to 22 June 2009 (35 days exposure) and the collected TPM masses varied between 0.2 mg
and 0.8 mg. The major elements were Ca, Fe, Na, K, and Zn at μg level, while others were at ng level. Pearson′s correlation
coefficients above 0.75 (a high degree of correlation) were found between several elements. Soil-related, traffic soil re-suspension
and anthropogenic emission sources could be identified. Blackboard chalk was also identified through Ca large presence. Some
of the determined chemical elements are potential carcinogenic. Quality control of the results showed good agreement as confirmed
by the application of u-score test.
Authors:A. L. F. S. d'almeida, V. Calado, D. W. Barreto, and J. R. M. d'almeida
The effect of several fiber surface treatments upon the dynamic mechanical behavior of piassava fiber-reinforced composites was evaluated. In the light of the experimental results obtained the critical volume fraction for the fibers to effectively perform as reinforcement was established. The results show that all treatments performed (mercerization, acetylation, and mercerization + acetylation) enhance the fiber/matrix adhesion, but some treatments also affect the fiber's integrity. At the elastic region the storage modulus of the composites fabricated with treated fibers was higher than that of the untreated fiber-reinforced composite. However, only the composite manufactured with 10 wt% mercerized fibers showed a statistically significant increase of the storage modulus. Above Tg the storage modulus was primarily governed by the volume fraction of fibers. Therefore, raw and treated fiber composites had essentially the same behavior.
Authors:N. Canha, M. Almeida-Silva, M. Freitas, S. Almeida, and H. Wolterbeek
A biomonitoring study, using transplanted lichens Flavoparmelia caperata, was conducted to assess the indoor air quality in primary schools in urban (Lisbon) and rural (Ponte de Sor) Portuguese
sites. The lichens exposure period occurred between April and June 2010 and two types of environments of the primary schools
were studied: classrooms and outdoor/courtyard. Afterwards, the lichen samples were processed and analyzed by instrumental
neutron activation analysis (INAA) to assess a total of 20 chemical elements. Accumulated elements in the exposed lichens
were assessed and enrichment factors (EF) were determined. Indoor and outdoor biomonitoring results were compared to evaluate
how biomonitors (as lichens) react at indoor environments and to assess the type of pollutants that are prevalent in those
Authors:S. Almeida, M. Freitas, M. Reis, and C. Pio
The analysis of airborne particulate matter (APM) by k0-NAA was assessed using: (1) BCR reference material (RM) simulated air-filters, (2) synthetic air-filters prepared by spiking blank filters with standard solutions, and (3) real APM filters. k0-INAA is a suitable technique for the analysis of APM, delivering accurate and precise results. However, the quality assessment of APM analysis appears to be a difficult task.
Authors:M. Farinha, S. Almeida, M. Freitas, T. Verburg, and H. Wolterbeek
Aerosol chemical composition data for PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 was acquired, in two sampling stations, at an industrialized area located in Sado Estuary. Two methods were used to have
an insight on the origin of the particles: the comparison between the measurements obtained in the two sampling stations and
the association between the wind direction and the element concentrations. Results showed that Ce, Fe, La, Sc, Sm, Na, Co
and Se were associated with non-local sources whereas As, K, Sb, Zn, Hg, Br, Cr, Hf and U had a local origin.
Authors:M. Freitas, S. Almeida, M. Reis, and M. Ventura
At ITN, PM10 and PM2.5 aerosols were collected on Nuclepore® polycarbonate filters of 47 mm diameter, using Gent samplers at 15–17 l/min air flux. Filters were analyzed by INAA and PIXE.
The availability of certified filters was very scarce, viz.: (1) fly ash embedded in a methyl cellulose 47 mm foil 10 µm thick,
BCR CRM128, (2) particle-size reduced air particulate matter (APM) to simulate PM2.5 aerosol matter deposited on a 47 mm polycarbonate
filter membrane, NIST SRM 2783. The high price and scarcity of APM standards did not permit their frequent use for analytical
quality control. At ITN, to control the filter results' accuracy, the chemical elements potassium, iron and zinc, determined
by both techniques, were systematically compared. After a few improvements introduced in INAA, this technique was now considered
at ITN as the reference technique in air particulate measurements. Comparison of INAA to PIXE was discussed. Compared to previously
reported situation it was concluded that the results were in better agreement for iron and zinc, and potassium values were
still biased to the same extent as before.