Using publication and citation counts, and data obtained from the editorial office ofJournal of Astrophysics and Astronomy, we conclude that this journal is truly international and stands a good chance of becoming one of the core journals of astronomy, provided it is marketed vigorously.
Based on the premise that citations in scientific journals can tell us a lot about the journals, we have compared Indian journals in the fields of astronomy, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, geology and ecology with leading world journals. The two criteria compared are the age of references and the journals often cited in each of the journals considered. Our results show that although overall Indian science is mediocre, parts of India's scientific enterprise are cognitively better related to world science. The peripherality is not uniform across the board, but some areas like astronomy and to some extent physics are closer to the central or mainstream science than others. Although citation analysis is not normally used for cross-field comparisons, this paper demonstrates that, if used judiciously, citation analysis can yield valuable insights into issues involving many fields.
Ion-exchange and solvent extraction procedures that can enable the use of NAA for the determination of trace elements from gallium matrix, using pre-irradiation separations are discussed. Matrix separation coefficients of the order of 103–106 are obtained.
The inadequacies of citation analysis-based quatitative techniques in the context of developing countries owe their origins to the rather small size of most peripheral country scientific enterprises, the poor coverage of Third World journals in bibliographic databases, (and in particularSCI), the cognitive limitations of citation analysis pointed out by microsociologists, and the non-normative nature of the scientific enterprise in these countries. Much of peripheral science is derivative and imitative of science done in the centre, rather than original or path-breaking, and there is hardly any indigenous scientific community. And yet, citation analysis-based quantitative measures can be applied to characterise different aspects of peripheral science. These techniques assume great importance, especially in view of the massive inadequacies of the peer review process prevailing in these countries. The application of such citation-based quantification to units of different levels of aggregation such as a journal, an institution and a country as a whole has been demonstrated taking India as the example. Our results show that levels of funding have no correlation with the quality or international citation impact of the literature output resulting from a project. Almost all Indian journals have a very low impact on world literature, and the relatively better performance ofJournal of Astrophysics and Astronomy (and Indian astronomical research in general) owes it to favourable factors, both social and cognitive.
An analysis of 258 papers published from Singapore and covered inScience Citation Index (SCI) 1979 and 1980 indicates that (1) much of R&D in Singapore pertains to medical research, (2) almost all the papers are published in English language periodicals published from the western world, (3) nearly two-thirds of Singapore's publication output is accounted for by the University of Singapore, and (4) by and large papers from Singapore are rarely cited, even if many of them have appeared in journals having impact factor greater than one.
From an analysis of bibliographic data on 430 journal articles on liquid crystals covered inPhysics Abstracts 1976 and the 4729 citations to them up to the end of 1987, we have identified the geographic origin, the prominent institutions, language and journal-wise distribution of the papers, the citedness of these papers, and the distribution of citations as a time series for the highly cited papers. We have also analysed the 126 papers published by authors from India, Canada, Australia, Israel, Japan and the United Kingdom and covered inPhysics Abstracts 1978, and the 1154 citations to them up to 1987. Unlike in most other high tech areas of physics, in LC research the difference in performance between the USA and the other leading countries is not very pronounced. Publication data from 1976, 1978 and 1985 reveal that LC literature is on the rise and that the percentage share of the Soviet Union is rising fast and that of the USA is on the decline.
Authors:J. Arunachalam, Anna John and S. Gangadharan
A neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed for the indirect determination of phosphorus as orthophosphate at ppb levels, via the formation of antimonyl phosphomolybdic acid. The complex is adsorbed on Sephadex G-25 resin and the antimony is estimated through NAA, allowing the determination of phosphorus. The procedure provides an easy method to adopt for the routine determination of phosphorus at 10 ng ml–1 levels with good precision, in water samples.
Authors:R. Verma, J. Arunachalam and S. Gangadharan
A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure for the determination of Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn in lithium niobate has been developed. The method involves a one-step removal of radioactive nuclides of Nb, Ta and W representing the dominating radioactivity of the irradiated sample. After irradiation, the sample is fused with inactive carriers and Na2O2 in a nickel crucible. The fused cake is dissolved in HCl–H2O2 and Nb, Ta and W are homogeneously precipitated. The impurities are separated by combinations of precipitation and ion-exchange separations for precise -ray measurements with an overall chemical yield of 70% to 90%. The results are discussed.
Authors:S. Arunachalam, R. Srinivasan and V. Raman
Science in the last few years has become increasingly global and collaborative. The number of internationally coauthored papers has been increasing steadily. We have counted internationally jointly authored papers involving authors from the advanced countries and the Third World countries, usingSCI 1991. We have looked at the number of papers resulting from collaboration among authors residing in the countries of the North (e.g. EC and OECD countries), authors residing in the South (e.g. India and Bangladesh, Mexico and Brazil, China and Pakistan) and papers resulting from collaboration between authors residing in the countries of the South and the North (e.g. India and UK, China and USA). Despite its late start, China has published many more collaborative papers with most Asian countries and the advanced countries of the West except the UK than India — confirming the effectiveness of the open door policy of post-Mao China. Both India and China collaborate with USA much more often in physics than in other areas, followed by clinical medicine. However, India collaborates more with USA in chemistry than China. In Indo-US and Sino-US collaborations, collaborating institutions are mostly universities and institutes of higher learning in India and USA, whereas in China several institutions under the Academies also take part. The percentage of collaborative papers involving authors from India is even smaller than the percentage of journal articles originating from India. In general, papers resulting from international collaboration appear in better journals and are cited more often than papers that are the outcome of local research.