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  • Author or Editor: S. Bona x
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Traditionally, triticale is mainly used as animal feed, the use for human utilization is still uncertain. However, in the past few decades, importance of triticale is increasing globally. Therefore, the determination of nutritionally important parameters of triticale and study of their genetic and environmental (G×E) variability have essential importance. In this study, ten hexaploid triticales along with reference wheat and rye varieties were grown at two locations in Hungary in a three-year-long experiment. Crude protein (8.6–16.3%), crude fat (0.86–1.98%), starch (57.6–65.0%), and dietary fibre values (7.5–13.7%) showed notable differences, significant genotype control were detected in all tested parameters except ash content (1.42–2.10%). The analysis of variance confirmed that crop year affected all traits, and also location had significant effect on the formation of protein and – to a lesser extent – the fibre levels. Furthermore, interactions between the effects were observed. Generally, nutritional characteristics of triticales were positioned between wheat and rye in this experiment; however, there were notable differences between the genotypes, and also the magnitudes of environmental effects were significant. Nutritional values of triticale provide a prospect for food production and human consumption.

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In many world regions, osmotic and salt stresses are becoming the primary environmental conditions limiting successful establishment of crops. The old durum wheat landraces may provide a source of genes useful to enhance crop resilience to the abiotic stresses of dryland areas or foreseen as a result of climate change. With this in mind, in order to determine the effects of salt and osmotic stresses on durum wheat germination, an old Sicilian durum wheat landrace “Timilia” and a relatively recent cultivar “Mongibello” were investigated at various iso-osmotic solutions of NaCl and mannitol at osmotic potentials of: 0 – control, –0.125, –0.250, –0.500 and –0.750 MPa.

Under stress conditions, different germination and early growth behavior was observed in the two durum wheat genotypes. Timilia presented almost stable germination even at the highest osmotic stresses (96.7% and 88.3% seed germination at 0 and –0.750 MPa, respectively) showing a higher capacity of seed imbibition than Mongibello. The latter thus showed a higher sensitivity than the old landrace to the studied stresses. The variability ascertained in the response to salinity stress indicate that Timilia could be a source of interesting genes for breeding programs.

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