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  • Author or Editor: S. Chakraborty x
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Designed experiments were conducted to study the effect of varying baking time (3.3–6.7 min) and baking temperature (166.6–183.4 °C) upon biscuits made out of five blends of refined wheat flour (RWF) and millet flour (63.2–96.8% RWF). The sensory attributes of the biscuits were evaluated in terms of crispness, colour (L* and ΔE) and overall acceptability (OAA). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to develop models and optimize the processing parameters. The blend ratio had a predominant effect upon all the responses. Crispness and ΔE were found to have maximum sensitivity towards all the processing parameters. The optimum processing condition obtained was blend ratio 90% RWF, baking time 6 min and baking temperature 170 °C, predicted values of crispness, L*, ΔE and OAA were 44, 34.3, 14.38 and 7.9, respectively. The model predicted values did not significantly differ from experimental values.

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Attempts have been made to determine the enthalpy and entropy of transfer of H+ ion from water to mixed solvents using the calorimetric data of earlier experiments. The results are in qualitative agreement with the facts that ΔH t 0(H+) passes through an exothermic maximum andTΔS t 0 passes through a minimum at about 20 to 30 wt% of organic solvent indicating the initial structure formation and the ultimate breakdown of the solvent structure with the addition of organic solvent.

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In this paper, joint distributions of number of success runs of length k and number of failure runs of length k' are obtained by using combinatorial techniques including lattice path approach under Pólya-Eggenberger model. Some of its particular cases, for different values of the parameters, are derived. Sooner and later waiting time problems and joint distributions of number of success runs of various types until first occurrence of consecutive success runs of specified length under the model are obtained. The sooner and later waiting time problems for Bernoulli trials (see Ebneshahrashoob and Sobel [3]) and joint distributions of the type discussed by Uchiada and Aki [11] are shown as particular cases. Assuming L n and S n to be the lengths of longest and smallest success runs, respectively, in a sample of size n drawn by Pólya-Eggenberger sampling scheme, the joint distributions of L n and  S n as well as distribution of M=max(Ln,Fn) n, where F n is the length of longest failure run, are also  obtained.

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Abstract  

Present investigation deals with neutron activation analysis of gold in some varieties of geological samples related to auriferous quartz veins. A few plant specimens of the area were also analyzed. The gold contents in the rock samples as determined by the destructive way of analysis vary in the range 10−5 to 10−7%. In case of plant samples, however, the non-destructive method of analysis of the plant ashes was followed and the concentration of gold was found to be of the order of 10−5%. In plants, besides gold, some associated elements, such as La, Ce, Sm, Lu, Zr, Hf, Se, W, As and Sb were also identified.

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Abstract  

Gold was determined in some selected rock samples by neutron activation analysis. The analysis was carried out both in destructive and non-destructive ways followed by γ-ray spectrometry. The amounts of gold that were determined in the respective rock samples varied in the range 10−4–10−6%. Besides gold, some other trace constituents such as As, Ag, Sb, W, Se, La, Sm, etc. were also detected and their approximate order of occurrence was determined.

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Biological control of die-back of bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus) caused by Botryodiplodia theobrome was made with the application of antagonistic agents like Trichoderma viride, T. lignorum, T. harzianum, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum. The effect of volatile and non-volatile antibiotics of Trichoderma origin on growth inhibition of the die-back pathogen was studied. T. harzianum showed maximum growth inhibition (75.33%) of the pathogen through mycoparasitism and the non-volatiles produced by the same agent exhibited its excellent antagonism to the growth of the pathogen (91.11%) under in vitro condition and that the effect was also proved to be durable.

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Influence of an endomycorrhizal species Glomus fasciculatum on the growth of two vegetable plants, namely, Solanum melongena and Lycopersicon esculentum and for reduction of the incidence of fusarial wilt disease under field condition was studied. VAM treated plants showed more vigor in terms of productivity parameters viz., plant height, number of branching twigs and fruit production. VAM and pathogen treated plants also showed positive effect of VAM-symbiont over control indicating reduction of pathogenic stress of the plant and give resistance. Leaf phosphate, chlorophyll content and percentage of mycorrhization were recorded highest when plants were singly inoculated with Glomus fasciculatum . Synergistic effect of VAM and pathogen to increase on productivity vis-à-vis resistance was also studied in respect of polyphenol oxidase. The experimental findings indicated the potential use of G. fasciculatum for improving the growth and imparting resistance of brinjal and tomato.

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Abstract  

A program for a large computer coded in FORTRAN IV is described. It has been tested thoroughly on an IBM 370/155, a CDC 6400/6500 and a CDC 3300. The program consists of nine versions which can perform most aspects of the evaluation of γ-spectra, from the simple smoothing of the raw data and detection of the peaks, up to a complete qualitative and quantitative analysis of unknown samples. A new kind of two-step fitting for the calculation of the peak parameters is presented. It delivers sufficiently precise parameters for the qualitative analysis after a short first step, and if so desired, very precise ones for a quantitative analysis in the second step. Both steps together are as fast as the common one step approach. Its special features are its reliability and its easy applicability to many different purposes and equipments.

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