A full length phytase (TaPAPhy_a1.1) gene was cloned and sequenced from Indian wheat cultivar DBW17. The 2,060 bp sequence has four introns of 63, 90, 94, 103 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 548 amino acids. N-terminal residues 5 to 19 contain a signaling peptide (SP) targeted to the vacuole. The predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point were 60.53 kDa and 6.74, respectively. A phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that TaPAPhy_a1.1 clustered on a branch with PAPhy_a1 from Aegilops tauschii cultivar NGB 9855. A structural model of TaPAPhy_a1.1 protein showed a single chain dimer containing two metal ions (Fe and Zn) bound at its active site. It belongs to the metallophosphoesterase group containing a characteristic set of seven amino acid residues (Asp, Asp, Tyr, Asn, His, His, His) involved in metal ligation. The full length TaPAPhy_a1.1 gene sequence from this investigation can be used for allele mining studies to identify superior alleles for higher phytase levels for improving the nutritional quality of wheat.
Authors:S. Masoud Hosseini, A. Moghadassi and Dale Henneke
This article presents a model, based on dimensionless groups, to predict the viscosity of nanoparticle suspensions, nanofluids.
This empirical model expresses the viscosity of a nanofluid as a function of the following: viscosity of the base liquid,
particle volume fraction, particle size, properties of the surfactant layer, and temperature. According to this model, viscosity
changes nonlinearly with nanoparticle loading. Compared to other models, the new model is in good agreement with experimentally
determined viscosity data for alumina–water nanofluids.
In this paper, we examine possible sources of hierarchical (nested) structure in vegetation data. We then use the Minimum Message length principle to provide a rational means of comparing hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering. The results indicate that, with the data used, a hierarchical solution was not as efficient as a nonhierarchical one. However, the hierarchical solution seems to provide a more comprehensible solution, separating first isolated types, probably caused from unusual contingent events, then subdividing the more diverse areas before finally subdividing the less diverse. By presenting this in 3 stages, the complexity of the non-hierarchical result is avoided. The result also suggests that a hierarchical analysis may be useful in determining homogeneous areas.
Authors:D. Garg, S. Sareen, S. Dalal, R. Tiwari and R. Singh
Terminal heat referred to as increase in temperature during grain filling, is one of the important stress factors for wheat production and is responsible for decline in wheat production in many environments worldwide. In order to meet the challenges of high temperature ahead of global warming, concerted efforts are needed to evaluate wheat genotypes for heat tolerance and develop genotypes suitable for such stressed environments. Twenty-seven advanced wheat genotypes developed for stress and normal environments by different research centres were evaluated during 2009–10 and 2010–11 under timely sown (normal) and late sown (heat stress) environments. Analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes differed significantly in grain filling duration (GFD), grain growth rate (GGR) and thousand-grain weight (TGW). Out of 27 genotypes, 16 were found to be tolerant for thousand-grain weight under late planting (heat stress) during 2009-10 but only 12 were tolerant during 2010–11. Many of the genotypes registered more reduction in thousand-grain weight during 2010–11 as compared to 2009–10; the temperatures during 2009–10 were higher. The differences in grain filling duration under two conditions during both seasons as well as difference in temperatures during first half of grain filling explain the reduction pattern in the genotypes. GFD had significant negative correlation with temperatures during post heading period and the difference in GFD under two environments had positive correlation with these temperatures. The reduction in GFD had regression of 33.3% on reduction in GGR and reduction in GGR had regression of 41.6% on reduction in TGW genotypes AKW 1071, DBW 17, HS 277, K 7903, K 9107, NW 1014 and RAJ 3765 had less sensitivity to stress environments during both years.
Authors:J. Dale, L. Hulett, S. Pendyala and W. Lyon
In using positrons as analytical tools the experimenter has two quite different options. The first and more obvious is to duplicate electron methods with positrons and see what differences (if any) result. The second is to exploit a unique characteristic of positrons, such as the formation and decay of the positronium atom, to study chemical composition and surface characteristics. Because positrons do not exist freely in our world, they must be obtained from radioactive sources or nuclear interactions. Source intensity has consequently been a limiting factor in experiments that attempt to duplicate electron applications. Some methods of producing and moderating positrons that have been developed here (and elsewhere) are described as well as results from studies using the sources. Surface measurements require less intense sources and yield useful data on materials such as xeolites, silica gels, graphite and alumina. Experimental apparatus, data and interpretation will be discussed.
Authors:Eve H. Limbrick-Oldfield, Mariya V. Cherkasova, Dawn Kennedy, Caylee-Britt Goshko, Dale Griffin, Jason J.S. Barton and Luke Clark
Background and aims
Individuals with gambling disorder display increased levels of risk-taking, but it is not known if it is associated with an altered subjective valuation of gains and/or losses, perception of their probabilities, or integration of these sources of information into expected value.
Participants with gambling disorder (n = 48) were compared with a healthy comparison group (n = 35) on a two-choice lottery task that involved either gains-only or losses-only gambles. On each trial, two lotteries were displayed, showing the associated probability and magnitude of the possible outcome for each. On each trial, participants chose one of the two lotteries, and the outcome was revealed.
Choice behaviour was highly sensitive to the expected value of the two gambles in both the gain and loss domains. This sensitivity to expected value was attenuated in the group with gambling disorder. The group with gambling disorder used both probability and magnitude information less, and this impairment was greater for probability information. By contrast, they used prior feedback (win vs loss) to inform their next choice, despite the independence of each trial. Within the gambling disorder group, problem gambling severity and trait gambling-related cognitions independently predicted reduced sensitivity to expected value. The majority of observed effects were consistent across both gain and loss domains.
Discussion and Conclusions
Our results provide a thorough characterization of decision processes in gain and loss domains in gambling disorder, and place these problems in the context of theoretical constructs from behavioural economics.