Authors:V. Peresedov, S. Gundorina, and T. Ostrovnaya
The experimental data on heavy metal and rare-earth element concentration in the environmental objects (pine needle and soil) caused by the enterprise for the production of mineral phosphoric fertilisers in Apatity (the industrial region in the Murmansk region, Kola Peninsula) have been obtained. The investigation was performed by neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 research reactor in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The analysis of nearly 40 element distributions in pine needle and soil from different geographical sites testifies about their contamination by a spectrum of elements, including REEs. Their contamination levels in the soil in the vicinity of the enterprise are significantly high.
Authors:V. Peresedov, V. Chinaeva, S. Gundorina, and T. Ostrovnaya
New experimental data has been obtained on heavy metal and rare-earth element concentrations in environmental objects, namely pine needles and soils, caused by atmospheric pollution in different regions of the Kola Peninsula. The investigation was performed with the use of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor. Analysis of nearly 40 element distribution in pine-needles and solids from the studied geographical points testifies of a strong contamination source —the nickel smelting complex in Monchegorsk. The contamination levels for Ni, Co, Cr, Se, and others are also high and may be hazardous to the population of this region because some of these elements are carcinogenic.
Authors:A. Gorbunov, S. Gundorina, T. Onischenko, and M. Frontasyeva
The paper discusses the possibilities of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis in the investigation of environmental pollutions. The X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of samples was performed using the MECA-1044A analyzer (XR-500, LINC SYSTEMS, Great Britain) with a pulsed X-ray tube with a silver target as a source of excitation. Neutron activation analysis was carried out on the basis of two reactors: IBR-2 LNP JINR, Dubna, and TWR ITEP, Moscow. The optimal regimes of measurement for both methods as well as the detection limits corresponding to these regimes are given. To illustrate the perspectives of the methods, the ecological problem of the consequences of introducing into soil of the now available meliorator CaSO4·2H2O is solved in the paper. Data on absorption of trace elements in a wide range including rare-earth elements by agricultural plants are presented. This paper may be of interest for specialists in analytical chemistry and ecology.
Authors:A. Gorbunov, T. Onischenko, S. Gundorina, and M. Frontasyeva
The effect of the production of phosphorus fertilizers on the pollution of the environment by rare-earth elements is reviewed. The main sources of rare-earth element pollution in the environment are described. The levels of REEs in components of the environment — atmosphere, snow, different types of soil, native and agricultural types of vegetation — that provide evidence for their participation in the biological cycle of plants are considered. The high values of the correlation coefficients lead one to think that the REE distribution in vegetation occurs under specific laws true for this family of elements.
Authors:V. Nazarov, M. Frontasyeva, V. Peresedov, V. Chinaeva, T. Ostrovnaya, S. Gundorina, and V. Nikonov
Experience in the use of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in the monitoring of atmospheric deposition by means of moss, lichens and pine needles is summarized. It is shown that 45 elements (Mg, K, Ca, Al, Cl, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p)-reaction), Zn, Cu, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th and U, as well as Ir and Re in pine needles in the presence of anthropogenic pollution by the nickel mining plant) are reliably determined. Examples of the use of lichens, moss and pine needles as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition in Franz Josef Land the Kola peninsula and in the Tver region are given.
Authors:L. Mosulishvili, Ye. Kirkesali, A. Belokobylsky, A. Khizanishvili, M. Frontasyeva, S. Gundorina, and C. Oprea
To evaluate the potentiality of the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceuticals, the background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th were determined in Spirulina platensis biomass by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The possibility of the purpose-oriented incorporation of Se into Spirulina platensis biomass was demonstrated. The polynomial dependence of the Se accumulation on nutritional medium loading was revealed. The analytical technique used allows to control the amount of toxic elements in algae Spirulina platensis. Based on this study, a conclusion of the possibility to use Spirulina platensisas a matrix for the production of Se-containing pharmaceutical was drawn.
Authors:N. Tsibakhashvili, T. Kalabegishvili, L. Mosulishvili, E. Kirkesali, S. Kerkenjia, I. Murusidze, H. Holman, M. Frontasyeva, and S. Gundorina
The dose-dependent formation of Cr(III) complexes and uptake of chromium by Arthrobacter oxydans — a Gram-positive bacterium from contaminated Columbian basalt rocks (USA) — were studied along with the testing under aerobic
conditions of two bacterial strains of Arthrobacter genera isolated from the polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was
used to track the accumulation of chromium in the bacterial cells. To monitor and identify Cr(III) complexes in these bacteria,
electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry was employed.