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Abstract  

Extraction of zinc with 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-trifluoroacetyl-pyrazolin-5-one /FAP/ into chloroform has been investigated as a function of pH. The extraction is masked with cyanide and citrate ions. The extracted zinc can be quantitatively stripped into appropriate aqueous solutions. The distribution data of other metal ions show that zinc can be separated from a number of elements. Few possible applications of such separations from analytical and radiochemical point of view have been suggested.

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Abstract  

Extraction of mercury with 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-trifluoroacetyl-pyrazolin-5-one /FAP/ in chloroform has been described. Maximum extraction /97.3%/ and a distribution coefficient /D/ of 36.5 have been achieved at pH 8. Among the anions tested, thiourea, thiosulphate and cyanide mask the extraction of mercury. Solution of O. 2M KCN was found most suitable stripping agent for mercury. Decontamination data show that mercury can be separated from toxic elements arsenic, cadmium, antimony and thallium; and from other metal ions i. e. Ga/III/, In/III/, Ge/IV/, Sn/II/, Fe/II/, Ir/IV/ and Pt/IV/. A few separations of analytical and radiochemical importance have been discussed.

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Abstract  

The sorption behavior of Sn(II) onto Haro river sand has been examined with respect to nature of electrolyte, agitation time, dosage of sorbent and concentration of sorbate. Maximum sorption (95.5%) has been achieved from 0.034M hydrochloric acid solution after equilibrating sorbate (2·10−5M) and sorbent (50 mg) for 120 minutes at aV/W ratio of 90 cm3·g−1. The kinetic data have been subjected to Morris-Weber and Lagergren equations. The kinetics of sorption proceeds a two stage process consisting of a relatively slow initial uptake followed by a much rapid increase in the sorption. The rate constant of intraparticle transport, Kd, comes out to be 8.75·10−8 mol·g−1·min−1/2 and the first order rate constant for sorption is 0.0416 min−1. The sorption data of Sn(II) onto Haro river sand followed Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) type isotherms. The Langmuir constant,Q, related to sorption capacity and,b, related to sorption energy are computed to be 10.6±1.1 μmol·g−1 and 1123±137 dm3·mol−1, respectively. The D-R isotherm yields the values ofC m=348±151 μmol·g−1 and β=−0.01044±0.0008 mol2·kJ−2 and ofE=6.9±0.3 kJ·mol−1. In all three isotherms correlation factor (γ) is ≥0.99. The influence of common anions and cations on the sorption has been investigated. Zn(II), Mg(II), oxalate, Pb(II), Mn(II) and tartrate reduce the sorption significantly whereas Fe(II) causes substantial increase in the sorption. It is essential that all ions causing a decrease in the sorption of Sn(II) must be absent from the sorptive solution otherwise low sorption yields would result.

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Abstract  

The sorption of chromium(III) onto Haro river sand has been investigated as a function of sorptive solution composition, amounts of sorbent (10–500 mg) and sorbate (4.33·10−8–5.17·10−6 M), shaking time (I-60 minutes) and temperature (15–35°C). Maximum sorption has been achieved from 0.001 M HCI solution using 50 mg of the sand and 20 minutes shaking time. The sorption data followed Freundlich and D-R isotherms. The sorption capacity of 0.4 μmole·g−1 and of sorption energy of 9.9 kJ·mole−1 have been computed from D-R parameters. Thermodynamic parameters ΔH=84.4 kJ·mole−1, ΔS=284.5 J·mole−1·K−1 and ΔG=−3.32 kJ·mole−1 at 298 K have been evaluated. Fe(II), Al(III), citrate, borate, oxalate, tartrate and carbonate ions reduce the sorption significantly. Under similar experimental conditions Tc(VII), Re(VII), Sb(V) and Co(II) have very low sorption (<1%) and trivalent Eu and Sm have large distribution ratios. Haro river sand can be used to preconcentrate or to remove micro or submicro amounts of Cr(III) from very dilute solution and for the separation of Tc, Re and Sb from Cr, Eu and Sm.

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Abstract  

The sorption of Cd(II) on Haro river sand from deionized water is reported. The sorption system obeyed according to the Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The Freundlich parameters 1/n = 0.67±0.05 and of A = 1.38±1.14 mmole·g-1 have been ascertained. D-R isotherm yields the values of = -0.003741±0.000321 kJ2·mole-2, X m = 0.23±0.21 mole·g-1 and of E = 11.6±0.5 kJ·mole-1. The influence of common anions and cations on the sorption was examined. Trivalent Bi enhances the sorption whereas Fe, Cr, Al and chromate ions reduce the sorption significantly. Hf(IV) and Ag(I) indicate substantial sorption (61–98%) whereas Gd(III), Re(VII) and Sc(III) show low sorption (<5%). The elements having low sorption can be separated from elements indicating higher sorption using Haro river sand column.

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Abstract  

The adsorption of cesium on manganese dioxide from aqueous solutions has been studied in relation to pertinent variables such as shaking time, pH, composition of aqueous solutions, mass of adsorbent (10 mg–1 g) and concentration of adsorbate (10–6–5·10–3 M), using a radiotracer technique. The influence of various anions and cations on cesium adsorption was examined. The distribution coefficient of a variety of other elements was determined under similar conditions. The adsorption of cesium obeys a Freundlich-type isotherm over the entire concentration range investigated, whereas the Langmuir-type isotherm is followed only at moderate concentrations.

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Abstract  

The extraction of group IB, IIB and IIA-VA elements with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-trifluoroacetyl-pyrazolone-5 in chloroform has been investigated as a function of pH. The stripping of metal ions into solutions of KCN, HClO4 and appropriate pH buffers has been studied. The masking effects of cyanide, citrate, iodide, thiosulphate and thiourea on the extraction have been examined. Selective group and individual separations have been proposed on the basis of pH control, masking effects and back-extraction.

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Abstract  

The extraction of group VIII elements with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-trifluoracetyl-pyrazolone-5 from aqueous solutions in chloroform has been studied as a function of pH. Fe(III), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Rh(III) show partial extraction whereas Co(II) is extracted quantitatively. The effect of citrate, cyanide, fluoride, iodide, thiosulphate and thiourea on the extraction of metal ions has been investigated. Back-extraction studies were carried out to strip metal ions from organic phase into appropriate aqueous solutions. Based on these findings some useful analytical separations have been proposed and a few of their possible applications have been discussed.

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Abstract  

A simple, rapid and selective separation procedure of gold based on its extraction with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-trifluoroacetylpyrazolone-5 has been developed. The dependence of the distribution ratio of gold on the pH of aqueous solutions, concentration of hydrochloric, nitric and perchloric acids and the organic solvents has been investigated. Decontamination factors for a number of metal ions with respect to gold are reported. Excellent separation of gold is obtained from many elements including noble metals. Citrate, cyanide, iodide, thiosulfate and thiourea completely mask gold, whereas oxalate does not interfere. Solutions of 1 M HCl, 0.2 M KCN, and the buffer of pH 0.8 readily strip gold from the organic phase. Some useful analytical applications of this procedure are discussed.

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Abstract  

The adsorption of cadmium on manganese dioxide has been investigated from different media in relation to shaking time, pH, composition and concentrations of electrolyte, adsorbent and adsorbate. The conditions for maximum adsorption have been established. Serious interference of EDTA in the adsorption is noticed. The selectivity of the oxide for different metal ions has been examined. More than 98% adsorbed cadmium is eluted, with 50 cm3 of 3M nitric acid solution from the oxide column.

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