Authors:A. H. M. El-Said, S. I. I. Abdel-Hafez, and A. Saleem
Glucophilic and cellulose-decomposing fungi were significantly reduced in soil samples treated with 0.019-0.152 mg a.i./kg soil of the herbicides Herbizid and Touchdown. The decrease was regularly correlated with the doses of the two herbicides and persisted till the end of the experiment (12 weeks). The isolated fungi were found to be able to produce hydrolytic extracellular enzymes in solid media but with variable capabilities. The ability to produce enzymes was adversily affected by the incorporation of herbicides in culture media. Lower doses of herbicides were occasionally promotive to enzyme production and mycelial growth of some fungi. Incorporation of 50 ppm of Herbizid and Touchdown significantly activated amylase production and mycelial dry weight in cultures of Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor hiemalis and Penicillium chrysogenum. There was a significant increase in C1-cellulase produced by F. oxysporum and P. aurantiogriseum when cultures weretreated with 50, 100 and 200 ppm of Herbizid which induced also more Cx-cellulase production by P.chrysogenum. Lipase and protease production was always lower in treated than in control fungal cultures.
Authors:A. M. Moharram, S. I. I. Abdel-Hafez, A. H. M. El-Said, and A. Salee
Kocide 101 (77% cupric hydroxide) and Ridomil plus (15% metalaxyl and 35% copper oxychloride) were used in the treatment of tomato plants. The two fungicides exerted a depressive effect on the total counts and on the individual cellulose - decomposing fungal species associated with the roots and shoots of tomato. When these fungicides were incorporated in the liquid culture medium specified for growth and extracellular enzyme production by some selected fungal species, there was a significant reduction in mycelial growth as well as in amylase, cellulase, lipase and protease production by the fungi tested, particularly at the higher doses (200-400 ppm). Exceptions were observed with lower doses (50 and 100 ppm) especially in case of Aspergillus flavus, Cunninghamella echinulata, Penicillium chrysogenum and Fusarium oxysporum grown for amylase or cellulase production.