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The aim of dogrose breeding for fruit purposes is to select genotypes suitable for cultivation and to produce new genotypes by crossing. Physical and chemical analyses, prospective genotypes have been developed from R. inodora , R. corymbifera, R. rubiginosa and R. canina varieties.In the course of the investigations, the highest vitamin C content was found in the hips of R. inodora and R. rubiginosa . The glucose and fructose contents ranged from 9.57–13.36 g/100 g, averaged over several years. The amounts of these two carbohydrates were equal, or in some taxa (e.g. R. corymbifera, R. canina Sz3) the fructose content was higher.The glucose, fructose and vitamin C contents changed at different rates in each taxon during ripening. The results showed that the fructose content reached its peak a week earlier than the glucose content. The vitamin C content of morphological varieties of R. canina did not change substantially during ripening.

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The aim of the research is to reveal the most important influencing factors that lead to consumers’ acceptance of personalised nutrition based on genetic testing. A nationwide representative questionnaire-based consumer survey was carried out involving 500 people in Hungary in 2014. The results show that consumers are divided over the new technology. Only 27.0% of the respondents have a positive attitude toward the new possibility, and they would be glad to use this new service in order to stay healthy. The rate of those who would have a genetic test because they want to follow a diet tailored to their needs is very low (16.0%). Our result suggested that the most important factors in consumer preference on personalised nutrition are positive health message and perceived risk/benefits, gender, and educational level. The most important factors regarding the attitude toward genetic testing are easy usage, benefits, the agreement among experts, and educational level.

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The compounds of interest in the present study were the natural compounds rutin and quercetin, which are strong antioxidants and have beneficial effects on human health (Myake & Shibamoto, 1997). They are present in everyday foods and beverages and in this way they are used as an integral part of human diet. Therefore, it seemed interesting to investigate the influence of these valuable natural compounds on corrosion processes of aluminium, an ambalage material often used in food industry (Jovanovic et al., 1994). All the investigations were performed in 3% solution of sodium chloride, in aqueous rutin and quercetin solutions as well as in rutin and quercetin solutions in 3% sodium chloride solution. Concentrations of rutin and quercetin solutions used ranged from 10-2 to 10-5 mol dm-3, and investigations involved electrochemical methods. The results obtained showed that rutin and quercetin previously dissolved in 0.1 M NaOH and added to the 3% sodium chloride solution at concentrations of 10-4 and 10-5 mol dm-3 acted as aluminium corrosion inhibitors, while at higher concentrations (10-2 and 10-3 mol dm-3) their effects were opposite. The efficiency of the corrosion inhibition of aluminium by rutin and quercetin solutions was the result of forming protective film on the metal surface. Therefore, the diluted rutin and quercetin solutions could be used as corrosion inhibitors of aluminium.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: M. Dobos-Kovács, E. Horváth, A. Farsang, Edith Nagy, Andrea Kovács, F. Szalai, and S. Bernáth

Haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of geese as a new disease was first described in Hungary in 1969. The authors identified the causative agent of the outbreaks occurring in 1969 as a polyomavirus by PCR in 2001. In order to study the pathogenesis of the virus, one-day-old goslings were infected with tissue homogenate that tested positive for polyomavirus by PCR. Morphological, light and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examinations have revealed that goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus replicates in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels and capillaries of diseased birds. Infection causes damage and necrosis of the endothelial cells. The virus was not observed in the parenchymal cells. Oedema and haemorrhages found throughout the body may be due to the dysfunction or functional deficiency of endothelial cells damaged by the virus.

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Community Ecology
Authors: E. Lellei-Kovács, E. Kovács-Láng, T. Kalapos, Z. Botta-Dukát, S. Barabás, and C. Beier

The influence of simulated climate change on soil respiration was studied in a field experiment on 4 m × 5 m plots in the semiarid temperate Pannonian sand forest-steppe. This ecosystem type has low productivity and soil organic matter content, and covers large areas, yet data on soil carbon fluxes are still limited. Soil respiration rate — measured monthly between April and November from 2003 to 2006 — remained very low (0.09 — 1.53 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 ) in accordance with the moderate biological activity and low humus content of the nutrient poor, coarse sandy soil. Specific soil respiration rate (calculated for unit soil organic matter content), however, was relatively high (0.36–7.92 μmol CO 2 g −1 C org h −1 ) suggesting substrate limitation for soil biological activity. During the day, soil respiration rate was significantly lower at dawn than at midday, while seasonally clear temperature limitation in winter and water limitation in summer were detected. Between years, annual precipitation appeared to be important in determining soil carbon efflux intensity. Nocturnal warming increased soil temperature in 1 cm depth at dawn by 1.6°C on the average, and decreased topsoil (0–11 cm) moisture content by 0.45 vol%. Drought treatment decreased soil moisture content by an average of 0.81 vol%. Soil respiration rate tended to decrease by 7–15% and 13–15% in response to heat and drought treatment, respectively, although the changes were not statistically significant. Nocturnal warming usually prevented dew formation, and that probably also influenced soil respiration. Based on these results, we expect a reduction in the volume and rate of organic matter turnover in this ecosystem in response to the anticipated climate change in the region.

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The purpose of this work was to further investigate the regulatory interplay between pyrophosphate:fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) and its positive effector, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P 2 ), in the storage organs of cold- and drought-stressed plants. Since there is no detectable cytoplasmic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (cytFBPase) activity in the taproots of carrot plants, PFP is the only enzyme that can replace its function when stored starch is converted to transportable sucrose. The working hypothesis was that PFP is likely to be involved in the mobilisation of energy reserves and might have a special role in storage organs such as carrot taproots upon stress. Both cold and drought stress resulted in a marked increase in the endogenous Fru-2,6-P 2 levels. It is suggested that the significant changes in photosynthate allocation are the direct results of the stimulation of PFP activity by elevated Fru-2,6-P 2 levels. PFP stimulated by Fru-2,6-P 2 operated in the gluconeogenic direction in the taproots of stressed carrot plants, whereas the glycolytic direction was dominant in the non-stressed controls. This suggests that the metabolic status determining the net activity of PFP depends on the physiological stress situation, making PFP an important sensor of environmental changes. The experimental data indicated that PFP is involved in the mobilisation of energy reserves during unfavourable environmental changes by promoting the re-synthesis of transportable sucrose in taproots.

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Microscopic organisms play a vital role in the field of green technology. Among the genera fungi, the group of entomopathogens includes Beauveria bassiana, which has been found to have multifunctional applications. In this present research, we have attempted to partially purify chitinase from two strains of Beauveria bassiana (F881 and F911), each cultured in minimal media with 1% (w/v) colloidal chitin as well as in Sabouraud's dextrose media with 1% (w/v) colloidal chitin. The purification process was done with a setup of ceramic membranes, which comprises two stages, ultrafiltration (50 nm pore size membrane) and nanofiltration (MWCO 5 kDa). Furthermore, with the analysis of yield of enzymatically hydrolyzed NAG (N-acetyl glucosamine), resistance and fouling of the membrane were also studied.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: V. Bušić, S. Kovač, D. Gašo-Sokač, and H. Lepeduš

The aim of this study was to examine antioxidant activities of the anthocyanins isolated from different sour cherry ( Prunus cerasus ) cultivars. DPPH radical method and photochemiluminescence detection method were employed. The effect of isolated anthocyanins on peroxidase activity was also investigated. In the DPPH method, methanol extract of isolated anthocyanins was employed and results showed the highest radical-scavenging activity of anthocyanins isolated from one genotype of Cigančica cherry (genotype VN 10–11), Petrovaradinska and Oblačinska cherry cultivar. Integral antioxidative capacity was determined by luminometry (Photochem), calculating the ascorbic acid equivalents. The best reducing power was shown by anthocyanins isolated from Maraska and Petrovaradinska cherry cultivars. Peroxidase activity of fresh plant material was determined and the influence of anthocyanins on peroxidase activity was investigated.

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PVC was used as a model substance to study the dependence of thermal measurement data on the preparation and morphological characteristics of samples The PVC treated was a commercially available suspension polymer, Ongrovil S 155, produced by the Borsodi Vegyi Kombinát.

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Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural Te were investigated up to 18 MeV. Cross sections for production of 121,123,124,126,128,130gI and 121gTe were measured. The new experimental data were compared with the results of ALICE-IPPE model calculations and with data found in the literature and measured on natural or enriched Te targets. The new data can be effectively used for validation of recommended cross sections of medically relevant 123I and 124I.

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