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  • Author or Editor: S. Kumar x
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Abstract  

We prove expansion mappings theorems in various spaces i.e., metric spaces, generalized metric spaces, probabilistic metric spaces and fuzzy metric spaces, which generalize the results of various authors like Daffer and Kaneko [11], Ahmad, Ashraf and Rhoades [1], Vasuki [38], Rhoades [31] and Wang, Li, Gao and Iseki [40] etc.

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Gene effects were analysed using mean stomatal number and specific leaf weight of 12 populations, consisting of both parents (P 1 and P 2 ), F 1 , F 2 , first backcross generations (BC 1 and BC 2 ), second backcross generations (B 11 , B 12 , B 21 , B 22 ) and backcross selfed generations (B 1 s and B 2 s) of four crosses involving three drought-tolerant and three drought-susceptible cultivars of Triticum aestivum L. to determine the nature of gene action governing stomatal number (SN) and specific leaf weight (SLW) through generation mean analysis in moisture stress (E 1 ) and moisture non-stress (E 2 ) environments. The digenic epistatic model was found to be inadequate for stomatal number and the additive-dominance model was found to be adequate for specific leaf weight in most of the crosses. Additive gene effects were predominant for SLW, while for SN both additive and dominance components of variance were important. Epistatic effects, particularly the additive × dominance (j) type of interaction, were present for both the characters. The duplicate type of epistasis was observed for stomatal number in the cross VL421/HS240 in the moisture stress environment. Significant heterosis was observed for the crosses Hindi 62/HS240 and VL421/HS240 over the standard check (SC) in the moisture stress environment (E 1 ) for both the characters. Genotype-environmental interactions and/or differential gene expression appeared to account for the different results found between environments. Hybridization systems, such as biparental mating and/or diallel selective mating, could be useful for the improvement of these traits, which would help in identifying drought-tolerant progenies.

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Gene effects were analyzed using mean excised-leaf water loss and relative water content of 12 populations viz., both parents (P 1 and P 2 ), F 1 , F 2 , first back cross generations (BC1 and BC2), second back cross generations (B 11 , B 12 , B 21 , B 22 ) and back cross-selfed generations (B 1 s and B 2 s) of four crosses involving three drought tolerant and three drought susceptible cultivars of Triticum aestivum L. to determine nature of gene action governing excised-leaf water loss (ELWL) and relative water content (RWC) through generation mean analysis under rainfed (E1) and irrigated (E2) environments. Both additive-dominance and digenic epistatic model were found to be inadequate in all the crosses for ELWL and in most of the crosses for RWC to explain genetic variation among the generation means. Additive gene effects were predominant for RWC, while for ELWL both additive and dominance component of variance were important. Epistatic effects, particularly dominance × dominance (1) type of interaction was more predominant for RWC, while additive × additive(i) for ELWL. Duplicate type of epistasis was observed in the crosses Hindi 62/HS240 and VL421/HS240 for RWC and in the cross S4/HPW89 for ELWL under both the environments. Complementary type of epistasis was observed only in the cross VL421/PBW175 for ELWL under E1. Hybridization systems, such as biparental mating and/or diallel selective mating could be useful for improvement of these traits which would help in isolating drought tolerant progenies.

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Abstract  

In the recent paper of this journal [7], a common fixed point theorem in G-complete fuzzy metric spaces under the t-norm Min was proved. We show that this theorem actually holds in more general situations.

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Abstract  

The spin transitions in two new cationic complexes of iron, i. e., iron bipyridine formate, [Fe/bipy/3]/HCOO/2. 5/HCOOH/ and iron bipyridine tetrafluoro borate, [Fe/bipy/3]/BF4/2. 2H2O have been studied by using Mössbauer spectroscopy. From quadrupole splitting values, at different temperatures, it has been established that both the complexes show the coexistence of both the high spin state and the low spin state at 300 K while complete transformation to low spin state occurs at 77 K. Both compounds were prepared by electrochemical technique.

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Abstract  

During reductive partitioning, hydrazoic acid is produced by the reaction of hydrazine and nitrous acid. In this paper an empirical model for the extraction of hydrazoic acid and its temperature dependence is reported.

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Abstract  

57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has been employed to characterize the chemical composition of iron aerosols collected from three distinct groups of sites representing remote, urban and industrially active areas. The Mössbauer spectra clearly show this environmental difference. The fact that the spectra of the samples collected from the remote areas are quite similar to those of clay minerals corroborates the view that iron aerosols are soil derived. Similarly the predominant presence of -Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 in the close vicinity of industrial activities suggests that the Mössbauer spectroscopy can help identify the anthropogenic processes against the natural ones.

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Abstract  

The techniques of gamma-radiolysis, UV photolysis and hydrogen-induced reduction of aqueous palladium perchlorate to ultrafine particles of Pd, in the presence of alumina sol, have been studied. As compared to H2-induced reduction, both UV photolytic and gamma-radiolytic reduction methods lead to a very stable, brown colored Pd colloid with relatively less absorption in the higher wavelength region and possessing much smaller volume average particle size (62 and 61 nm, respectively). Higher concentration of alumina sol and increase in pH from 1.8 to 7.2, favour the formation of smaller sized particles as determined by the dynamic light scattering technique.

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Aim of this study is to analyze the effect of chronic administration of beta agonist isoproterenol hydrochloride (60 mg kg −1 day −1 ; 30 days) on soleus (a slow type) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, a fast type) muscles in young mice. Isoproterenol resulted in significant increase in muscle weight to whole body weight ratio with no increase in hypertrophy index in soleus muscle. A significant increase in noncontractile protein collagen is also observed in both muscles but more prominent in soleus muscle. Collagen proliferation is also analyzed on sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of pepsin soluble and Cyanogen Bromide (CNBr) treated pepsin insoluble collagen. Isoproterenol remolded the myofibrillar proteins in both muscles but significant increase in myofibrillar ATPase activity occurred only in soleus muscle. It is concluded that growth stimulatory effect of isoproterenol hydrochloride is more prominent in soleus than EDL muscle. Isoproterenol augmented the proliferation of non-contractile protein collagen in soleus and EDL muscles. The transformation in myofibrillar proteins caused by isoproterenol might lead to an enhancement of contractile performance.

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