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Abstract  

It is shown that every separable k'-space with a point-countable k-system has a countable k-system, which gives an affirmative answer to Y. Tanaka's Question posed in 1982.

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Abstract  

In this paper the relations among k-covers, cs *-covers and k-systems are discussed. The following question is partially answered: Does every separable k'-space with a point-countable k-system have a countable k-system?

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Abstract  

A number of generalized metric spaces have been defined or characterized in terms of g-functions. Symmetric g-functions are discussed by C. Good, D. Jennings and A. M. Mohamad. In this paper, some questions about symmetric g-functions are answered, particularly it is shown that every sym-wg-space is expandable.

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This investigation is one of the first to adopt quantile regression (QR) technique to examine covariance risk dynamics in international stock markets. Feasibility of the proposed model is demonstrated in G7 stock markets. Additionally, two conventional random-coefficient frameworks, including time-varying betas derived from GARCH models and state-varying betas implied by Markov-switching models, are employed and subjected to comparative analysis. The empirical findings of this work are consistent with the following notions. First, the beta smile (beta skew) curve for the Italian, U.S. and U.K. (Canadian, French and German) markets. That is, covariance risk among global stock markets in extremely bull and/or bear market states is significantly higher than in stable periods. Additionally, the Japanese market provides a special case, and its beta estimate at extremely bust state is significantly lower, not higher than that at the middle region. Second, the quantile-varying betas are identified as possessing two key advantages. Specifically, the comparison of the system with quantile-varying betas against that with time-varying betas implied by GARCH models provides meaningful implications for correlation-volatility relationship among international stock markets. Furthermore, the quantile-varying beta design in this study relaxes a simple dual beta setting implied by Markov-switching models of Ramchand — Susmel (1998) and can identify dynamics of asymmetry in betas.

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SOFM (self-organizing feature map) clustering is powerful in analyzing and solving complicated and non-linear problems. This method was used and compared with fuzzy C-means clustering and TWINSPAN, the most common classification methods, in analysis of plant communities in the Guancen Mts., China. The dataset consisted of importance values of 112 species in 53 quadrats of 10 m × 20 m. All the three methods classified the 53 quadrats into eight groups, representing eight associations of vegetation. They were all effective in the analysis of ecological data. The consistency of SOFM clustering with fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) and TWINSPAN classification was 81.1% and 94.3%, respectively. SOFM clustering has some advantages and more potentiality in application to studies of ecology.

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Abstract  

A new complex, diaquadi(1,2,4-triazol-5-one)zinc(II) ion nitrate formulated as {[Zn(TO)2(H2O)2](NO3)2}n (1) (1,2,4-triazole-5-one, abbreviated as: TO) was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray single crystal diffraction, infrared spectrum (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG). The X-ray structure analysis reveals that the complex is orthorhombic with space group Pbca and unit-cell parameters a=6.9504(2) �; b=10.6473(3) �; c=17.8555(5) �. Based on the result of thermal analysis, the thermal decomposition process of the compound was derived. From measurement of the enthalpy of solution in water in 298.15 K, the standard molar enthalpy of solution of lignand TO and the complex were determined as 15.43�0.18 and 52.64�0.42 kJ mol−1, respectively. In addition, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of TO(aq) was calculated as −126.97�0.72 kJ mol−1.

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Abstract  

Zigetang Lake located in the central Tibetan Plateau was selected for the purpose of understanding of recent sedimentation rates. Based on 137Cs dating marker, the sediment rate was 0.077 cm·yr−1. The sedimentation rate was calculated to be 0.071 cm·yr−1 and 0.029 g·cm−2·yr−1 on the basis of 210Pb CIC model. 210Pb CRS model was also used for understanding of recent sedimentation change. The sediment accumulation rates for the CRS model ranged from 0.022 to 0.038 g·cm−2·yr−1 with an irregular high value of 0.12 g·cm−2·yr−1 around 1932 at Zigetang Lake core in the past eighty years.

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Abstract  

Nano-ZnO flakes were synthesized by calcination of the precursor of Zn(OH)2 obtained via the reactive ion exchange method between an ion exchange resin and ZnSO4 solution at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectrum and Na2EDTA titration were used to characterize the structure features and chemical compositions of the as-prepared ZnO. The results show that the as-prepared ZnO flakes have uniform structure and high purity. Heat capacities in the temperature range of 83 to 396 K were measured. The measured heat capacities values were compared with those of coarse crystal powders and the difference between this two heat capacity curves was analyzed.

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CuO nanocrystals in thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

Stabilization, structural characterization and catalytic activities

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: L.-J. Chen, G.-S. Li, and L.-P. Li

Abstract  

CuO nanocrystals of different surface areas were prepared. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transition electron microscope, thermogravimetry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CuO nanocrystals showed a stable monoclinic structure. With increasing surface areas, the surface hydration became significant, which is followed by shifts in infrared frequencies and Raman phonon modes. CuO nanocrystals were explored as an additive to catalytic decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). AP decomposition underwent a two-stage process. Addition of CuO nanocrystals led to a downshift of high-temperature stage towards lower temperatures.

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Small-scale vegetation patterns are frequently the results of plant-plant interactions such as facilitation and competition. Facilitation should be particularly pronounced when both abiotic and biotic stresses are high, but few studies were conducted in such habitats. In heavily-grazed pastures on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, an area with both high abiotic stress and strong biotic disturbance, we made relevés of herb species both beneath and outside canopies of three shrub species (Spiraea alpina, Sibiraea angustata and Potentilla fruticosa) differing in palatability and canopy structure. Herb species richness (S), pooled cover (PC) of all species, number of flowering species (FS) and number of inflorescences of all species (IN) were greater outside than beneath the shrub canopies. Evenness (J), in contrast, was smaller outside, while Shannon’s diversity index (H) was the same. Differences in S and J between plots beneath and outside the shrub canopies were greater in the case of P. fruticosa than in the cases of S. angustata and S. alpina, but differences in PC, FS or IN did not depend on the shrub species. Among the common species (frequency ≥6), 47–85% were equally frequent beneath and outside the shrubs, 13–39% were more frequent outside and 3–13% were more frequent beneath the shrubs. For the rarest species (frequency < 6), however, more species occurred beneath than outside the shrubs. The ordination diagram showed a clear separation between the relevés outside and beneath the shrubs and a gradient from P. fruticosa via S. alpina to S. angustata, accompanied by a distinct decrease in the extent of the difference between the vegetation beneath and outside the shrub canopies. In conclusion, the three shrub species facilitated some species in the herb layer and each shrub species had a specific impact, related to its canopy structure and palatability but also to the grazing pressure, which was greater around the P. fruticosa shrubs than around S. alpina and S. angustata.

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