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Abstract  

Natural bentonite clay was treated in order to remove impurities to increase the cation exchange capacity of the montmorillonite and to obtain a more effective radioactive cesium sorption. It was found that the treatment of the clay determines the amount of sorbed cesium. On the other hand it was shown that montmorillonites may retain cesium through several mechanisms which provide strongly retained cations occupying cationic sites into the clay structure or sorbed cesium which may be lost by purification treatments.

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Abstract  

Co80Nb14B6, Co80Nb12B8 and Co80Nb10B10 amorphous alloys were obtained through the melt-spinning process. The ribbons structure was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and the crystallization process and the thermal stability were studied by means of differential thermal analysis and thermomechanical technique. It was observed that the crystallization temperature depends on the alloy composition and occurs in a temperature range between 420 and 730C. The coercive field of all alloys was determined by magnetic susceptibility measurements, the values of which range from 2.78 to 5.95 A m-1.

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Abstract  

The crystallization behavior of Co75-xFexGe15B10 (x=3.0, 4.6 and 6.0) amorphous alloys was monitored by differential thermal analysis and thermo-mechanical analysis. The crystallization process of the melt spun ribbons was interrupted at 450, 525, 650, 800 and 900C and their microstructures were investigated by X-ray diffractometry. It was observed that the crystallization occurs in a sequential mode attributed to the formation of different types of precipitates. It was shown that the crystallization products change as a function of Fe content. After full crystallization, GeFe, Co3B, FeGe2 and Co2Ge compounds were found as well as a Co rich solid solution.

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Abstract  

Vegetable tannin sorbent is evaluated as ion exchange resin using a multitracer study on the adsorption behavior of various elements. Lisiloma latisiliqua L. tannins, polycondensated into spherical pellets were chosen as sorbent resin material. Sorption evaluation of Ce, Cu(II), U(VI), Eu, Fe(III), Th, Nd as representatives of different classes of metal ions were done at different pH values. The distribution ratio of the studied elements was calculated from laboratory experiments. Tannic ion exchange material shows excellent ability for actinides and rare earth elements adsorption from waters. Using radiotracers, the number of catechins subunits involve in each tannin-metal complex was determined.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: C. Costa, S. Crispim, S. Lima, C. Paskocimas, E. Longo, V. Fernandes, A. Araújo, and I. Santos

Abstract  

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Abstract  

Adsorption of Cr(VI) by two tannin sorbents is evaluated using radiotracers. Evaluation of the sorption process shows that the Cr(VI)-tannin molecule binding is the principal responsible for chromium adsorption. High sorption capacities were registered for both sorbents at pH 2. ForEucaliptus Saligna Sm sorbent (ETS) sorption capacity is 0.92±0.03 mmol/g and forLysiloma latisiliqua sorbent (LTS) is 3.8±0.3 mmol/g. Influence of different ions present in water is examined. High sorption capacity is reported for LTS in sea and tap water samples. It represents 90–94% of adsorption in distillated water.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: J. Torres, S. Olivares, D. De La Rosa, L. Lima, F. Martínez, C. Munita, and D. Favaro

Abstract  

Adsorption of mercury(II) and methylmercury by two tannin sorbents was investigated using radiotracers. High sorption capacities for mercury are registered for both sorbents at pH 7. ForEucaliptus Saligna Sm sorbent (ETS) the maximum sorption capacity was 1.2±0.2 mmol/g and forLysiloma latisiliqua sorbent (LTS) was 8.5±0.2 mmol/g. Methylmercury adsorption maximum was recorded at pH 4 and in buffered solutions at pH2. This species can be recovered in the presence of mercury(II). Influence of different ions present in water was examined. High recoveries were reported for ETS in tap water samples but a decrease of uptake is observed for seawater.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Márcia Silva, Mary Alves, S. Lima, L. Soledade, Elaine Paris, E. Longo, A. Souza, and Iêda Santos

Abstract  

Sr(Ti,Nd)O3 was synthesized in order to evaluate the influence of the amount of neodymium on the thermal and structural properties of SrTiO3. The synthesis was carried out using the polymeric precursor method. A small mass gain was observed for the SrTiO3 and SrTi0.98Nd0.02O3 samples accompanied by an exothermic peak in the DTA curves. Other steps at higher temperatures are assigned to the combustion of the organic material and carbonate. Elimination of defects by previous calcination of the precursors is responsible by the short and long range ordering of the perovskite. Cubic phase was obtained for undoped and doped SrTiO3.

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Abstract  

The present work investigates the influence of milling and calcination atmosphere on the thermal decomposition of SrTiO3 powder precursors. Both pure and neodymium-modified SrTiO3 samples were studied. Milling did not significantly influence numerical mass loss value, but reduced the number of decomposition steps, modifying the profiles of the TG and DTA curves. On the other hand, milling increases the amount of energy liberated by the system upon combustion of organic matter. It was also observed that the milling process, associated to the calcination in an oxygen atmosphere, considerably decreases the amount of organic matter and increases the final mass loss temperature.

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Summary  

This paper describes an analytical method using a nuclear-related technique for the detection of forbidden doping substances in the urine of race horses. The proposed method, adapted from the Méthode Alcaline Sur C-18 developed by the French Laboratoire de Contrôle Antidopage, is based on gas chromatography separation followed by mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was validated for caffeine, identified as the most frequent doping substance in the Brazilian horseracing activity. This validation is also a major requirement to achieve ISO/IEC 17025 laboratory accreditation. The validation has led to several metrological challenges because the decisions are largely based on qualitative results (“false-positive” and/or “false-negative”) and the degree of accuracy, as well as the traceability had to be determined in the absence of certified matrix reference materials.

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