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Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements have been carried out on Bi-Sn based amalgam precursors to be used in compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) to study the changes in melting and solidifying behaviour caused by In dopant. The phase and elemental compositions of the samples have been characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), respectively. One of the endothermic peaks of the liquid amalgam formation shifted from 121°C to 112 and 105°C, with increasing content of 2.5 and 4.8 mass% In of samples, respectively.

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Zeolites chemically modified with 1, 4 or 6 M aqueous solutions of NaOH were studied by DTA, TG and ETA (emanation thermal analysis) in the temperature range 201–200°C. The structural changes in the modified zeolites at room temperature and in the modified zeolites annealed at 1000°C were studied by XRD analysis. Thermal analysis demonstrated dehydration, dehydroxylation, structural changes and a glass transition. A gradual loss in crystallinity of the chemically modified zeolites was also observed. XRD analysis revealed structural changes caused by chemical treatment and also by annealing.

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Developments in Health Sciences
HJ Feith
Á Lehotsky
Á Lukács
E Gradvohl
R Füzi
S Darvay Mészárosné
I Krekó Bihariné
ZS Karacs
ZS Kiss Soósné
, and
A Falus


The authors intended to develop a novel procedure and research method that follows the effectiveness of the peer-educational approach in handwashing among school children.

Materials and methods

To ask the children about their sociodemographic background, health behaviour, hand hygiene knowledge, and health attitudes, and questionnaires were applied. The education on proper handwashing procedures was followed by a test with a mobile UV-light detection system (Semmelweis Scanner,, and the scans were evaluated through an intrinsic computer software.


Our newly developed questionnaire-based research method and the hand-rubbing technique followed by a test with a mobile UV-light detection system may become a reliable and valid scientific measurement of the effectiveness of hand hygiene training programmes.


The Hand-in-Scan technology and questionnaire-based research method provide proper tools for evaluating the successful peer education method. It can significantly elevate the level of children’s compliance, which leads to a better hygienic consciousness.

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