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  • Author or Editor: S. Mahmood x
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Abstract  

The influence of active carbon as support on the reducibility of supported metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn) has been studied by means of a temperature programmed reduction (TPR) technique. The TPR profiles indicate that active carbon behaves as a dispersion agent and the supported metal is dispersed in a disordered phase rather than as a stoichiometric compound. The hydrogen consumed in the reduction indicates that the metal residues are present in monovalent and divalent forms. High-temperature reduction peaks were also observed and are explained on the basis of metal-surface interactions and the porosity of the active carbon. Nitrogen adsorption reveals that the active carbon porosity decreases due to progressive closure of the pores when metals are supported on the surface of active carbon.

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Abstract  

The adsorption of cerium from aqueous solutions on lead dioxide has been investigated and optimized as a function of pH, equilibration time, sorbate and sorbent concentrations. The effect of other anions and cations on its adsorption has also been studied. Citrate, EDTA, tartrate, oxalate, U(VI), Th(IV), Pb(II), Cr(III) and Al(III) drastically reduce the adsorption. Adsorption of other metal ions on the same oxide has been measured under identical conditions. The distribution coefficient indicates that cerium can be separated from Fe(III), Tc(VII), In(III), Ag(I), Hg(II) and Ta(V). The data fitted very well to Freundlich as well as Dubinin-Raduskevich (D-R) isotherms. A mean free energy of sorption 11.62±0.2 kJ·mol–1 was calculated, using the D-R equation and corresponds to an ion exchange reaction.

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Abstract  

A direct and simple method for the conversion of UO2 and U3O8 powder into uranyl sulphate solution is described, eliminating many tedious chemical steps. UO2 and U3O8 are not soluble in concentrated or dilute sulphuric acid, as uranium in lower oxidation state does not react with sulphuric acid. However, nitric acid oxidizes uranium from lower valency to higher valency state, i.e., tetravalent to the hexavalent uranyl ion in solution. Sufficient amount of sulphuric acid present in the reaction mixture makes it possible for uranyl ions, formed by oxidation of nitric acid, to react with sulphuric acid forming uranyl sulphate.

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Abstract

Transition temperature and thermal stability of proteins were studied in the presence and absence of boron. The observed midpoint of thermal denaturation (T m) of cytochrome c (Cyt c) at pH 9.2 was 68.8 °C, which in the presence of boron increased to 71.0 °C. For metmyoglobin, T m increased from 79.7 °C in the absence of boron to 83.5 °C in the presence of boron. Boron caused an increase of 10% in the reversibility of thermal denaturation of cytochrome c when compared with control. Activity measurements of the heat treated proteins and T m suggest an increased thermal stability toward inactivation and denaturation of heme proteins in the presence of boron.

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Alkaline and acidic pH of soil limit crop yield. Products of phenylpropanoid pathway play a key part in plant abiotic stress tolerance. It was aimed to assess efficacy of tyrosinepriming for activation of enzyme involved in phenolic accumulation induction of pH tolerance in maize seedlings. Seeds of two maize cultivars, namely Sadaf (pH tolerant) and S-2002 (pH sensitive), were grown under three pH levels (3, 7 and 11). Eight and twelve days old seedlings were harvested and parted into roots and shoots for the assessment of growth, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. PAL activity was directly correlated with total soluble phenolics, flavonoids, growth and seedling vigour. Lower accumulation of phenolics and PAL activity in the pH sensitive (S-2002) cultivar indicated greater oxidative damage caused by pH extremes. Priming improved antioxidative potential by enhancing PAL activity and phenolics accumulation and hence increased growth in maize seedlings.

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Abstract

The Electronic Throttle Valve (ETV) is the core part of automotive engines which are recently used in control-by-wire cars. The estimation of its states and uncertainty is instructive for control applications. This study presents the design of Extended State Observer (ESO) for estimating the states and uncertainties of Electronic Throttle Valve (ETV). Two versions of ESOs have been proposed for estimation: Linear ESO (LESO) and Nonlinear ESO (NESO). The model of ETV is firstly developed and extended in state variable form such that the extended state stands for the uncertainty in system parameters. The design of both structures of ESOs are developed and a comparison study has been conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed observers. Numerical simulation has been conducted to assess the performance of observers in estimating the states and uncertainties of ETV. The simulated results showed that both full order and reduced order models of ETV have the same transient characteristics. Moreover, the effectiveness of two versions of observers has been examined based on Root Mean Square of Error (RMSE) indicator. The results showed that the NESO has less estimation errors for both states and uncertainties than LESO.

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