A field study conducted for two years (1995-96 and 1996-97) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi on a sandy clay loam soil showed that the application of NP increased the total grain production of a rice-wheat-mungbean cropping system by 0.5-0.6 t ha
, NK by 0.3-0.5 t ha
and NPK by 0.8-0.9 t ha
compared to N alone, indicating that the balanced use of primary nutrients was more advantageous than their imbalanced application. The application of farmyard manure (FYM) along with NPK further increased the total productivity of the rice-wheat-mungbean cropping system by 0.3-0.6 t ha
, the organic C by 0.13%, the available N by 10.7 kg ha
, the available P by 4.7 kg ha
and the available K by 15 kg ha
compared to NPK after two crop cycles of the system. The results of the present study thus indicate that integrated nutrient management involving FYM and NPK fertilizers is a must for the sustainability of a cropping system.
Thermal decomposition of di- and triphenyltin(IV) complexes derived from potassium salicylhydroxamate (KSHA) of compositions
Ph2SnCl(SHA), Ph2Sn(SHA)2 and Ph3Sn(SHA) has been studied by TG, DTG and DTA. Based upon thermal mass losses the transitory
formation of diphenyltin oxide, Ph2SnO as the possible intermediate from the decomposition pattern of all the three complexes
has been proposed. Both DTG and DTA give well-defined peaks in the appropriate regions. These studies reveal the formation
of SnO2 as the ultimate product.
Field experiments were conducted for two crop years at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effect of enriching wheat residue with legume residue on the productivity and nitrogen uptake of a rice-wheat cropping system and soil fertility. The incorporation of wheat residue had an adverse effect on the productivity of the rice-wheat cropping system. When it was incorporated along with Sesbania green manure, not only did its adverse effect disappear but the response to fertilizer N was also increased. There was no response to fertilizer N when Sesbania green manure was incorporated. When wheat residue was incorporated along with Sesbania green manuring, rice responded significantly to fertilizer N up to 120 kg N ha-1 in the first year and to 60 kgN ha-1 in the second year and at these levels of N, Sesbania + wheat residue gave 0.8 to 1.2 t ha-1 more grain, 0.6-1.0 t ha-1 more straw and 8-15 kg ha-1 more N uptake of rice resulting in 0.04-0.17% more organic C, 3-8 kg ha-1 more available P and 17-25 kg ha-1 more available K content in the soil than wheat residue alone at the same rates of N application. The respective increaseas caused by Sesbania green manure + wheat residue over Sesbania green manure alone were 0.3-0.5 t ha-1 in the grain and straw yield, 1-9 kg ha-1 in the N uptake of rice, 0.02-0.10% in organic C, 1-8 kg ha-1 in available P and 35- 70 kg ha-1 in available K content in the soil. These treatments also gave higher residual effects in succeeding wheat than wheat residue alone. The incorporation of residues of both wheat and Sesbania is thus recommended to eliminate the adverse effect of wheat residue and to increase the beneficial effects of Sesbania green manuring.
Lactic acid fermentation of carrot as a method of preservation using different lactic acid bacteria, viz.
Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus cerevisiae
as such and in sequence at different temperatures and with varying salt content (2, 2.5 and 3%) were employed in the fermentation of carrot. The differences in fermentation behaviour of different microorganisms were quite contrasting at 26 °C, but the sequential culture started deviating from the very first day and acidity increased up to 6 days. A temperature of 26 °C and salt concentration of 2.5% were the best for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation of Asiatic carrot as highest acidity (1.40% lactic acid), low pH and low reducing sugars were achieved in sequential fermentation. The LAB count of 7.8×10
was also higher at these concentrations coupled with higher sensory scores of the products. Among the fermentation types tried, sequential culture fermentation of the vegetables produced the product with higher acidity, low pH and reducing sugars. The sequential culture fermentation imparted the fermented products better flavour, texture and taste than other products fermented naturally or with lactic cultures of
Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum
in single separate fermentation. Based on the overall and sensory quality evaluation, the fermented carrot product prepared with sequential culture was the best followed by the product prepared using natural microflora.
The paper analyses 2339 research papers appearing in 330 journals covered in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, India (1983) on the basis of their broad subject fields such as agronomy, phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical research; their country of origin; plant genera and their species; and by type of investigation. Under each of the broad subject fields and major genera, an attempt has been made to identify the nature and focus of research in different countries through minimal level content analysis. Special focus of the paper has been the analysis of Indian publication output.
The F1 and F2 progenies of a ten-parent diallel cross (excluding reciprocals) were analysed for the combining ability of quantitative traits in six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). significant differences were indicated between the parents, F1s and F2s for all the characters studied. The gca and sca components of variance were significant for all the traits. Both additive and non-additive gene effects were involved in the genetic control of the characters; however, non-additive gene effects were observed to be predominant. Among the parents RD 2035, RD 2052, RD 2503 and BL 2 were the best general combiners for grain yield and average to high combiners for other important traits.The parents RD 2552 and RD 387 were the best general combiners for dwarfness. The best specific crosses for grain yield were RD 2503 × RD 2585,RD 2035 × RD 2052, RD 2035 × BL 2, RD 2052 × BL 2, RD 2508 × RD 2552, RD 2552 × RD 2585 and Rd 2052 × RD 2552 in both the F1 and F2 generations. These crosses were higher yielders and in most of the crosses one of the parents involved was a good combiner, indicating that such combinations can be expected to produce desirable transgressive segregants. All the best crosses for grain yield also showed average to high sca effects for most of the yield components. Most of the specific crosses for grain yield involved high × average, average × average and average × poor general combiners. To ensure a further increase in grain yield, the combination of desirable yield components is advocated. The inclusion of F1 hybrids showing high sca, and having parents with good gca, in multiple crosses, bi-parental mating or diallel selective mating could prove a worthwhile approach for further amelioration of grain yield in six-rowed barley.
The thermal decomposition of the complexes [Vcl (acac)2(OAr)] (where acac=2,4-pentanedionato anion; OAr=–OC6H4O-M-4, OC6H4OBut-4) has been studied using non-isothermal techniques (DTA and TG). The TGA indicate that the substitution of chlorine
in VCl2(acac)2 with aryloxide ligands results in an increase in the initial temperature of decomposition (IDT) of the new complexes. The role of the substituent at the aryloxide ring on the thermal stability of the complexes is depicted
and hence described. The ultimate decomposition product in all the complexes has been identified as V2O5. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters namely, the energy of activation E, the frequency factor A, entropy of activation S and specific reaction rate constant kr etc. have been rationalized in relation to the bonding aspect of the aryloxide ligands.
The role of antibiosis components and antioxidant defense of rice genotypes, namely CR3006-8-2, RP4918-221, KAUM182-1, T12, IHRT-ME-25, W1263, Ptb33 (resistant check) and TN1 (susceptible check) was studied by phenotyping them against brown planthopper (BPH). Three genotypes, namely KAUM182-1, RP4918-221 and CR3006-8-2 were resistant to BPH and significantly low damage score (1.97–3.00); honeydew excretion area (46.76–49.64 mm2); nymphal survival (60.60–66.40%) and growth index (2.98–3.86) was recorded on them. Higher constitutive and induced level of soluble phenolics, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase was observed in resistant genotypes without and with BPH infestation. A negative relationship between honeydew excretion, nymphal emergence, growth index and nymphal survival was observed with these biochemical constituents. Likewise, a reverse trend was observed between nymphal development period and biochemical constituents. These genotypes have emerged as a new source of resistance to BPH which can be used in hybridization programme to breed durable BPH resistant rice varieties.
Combining ability analysis was carried out in the F1 and F2 generations of a 10 × 10 parents half diallel for peduncle length and flag leaf area in spring wheat under three environments. The mean squares for both general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were significant for peduncle length in both the generations, indicating the involvement of both additive and non-additive gene actions in the inheritance. However, the high values of GCA variance showed the greater importance of additive gene action in the inheritance of this trait. Flag leaf area was observed to be controlled by non-additive gene action. The environment played a significant role in the expression of both the traits. The GCA × environment interaction exhibited greater sensitivity in all cases than the SCA × environment interaction. The varieties Kharchia 65 and Durgapura 65 emerged as desirable general combiners for peduncle length, whereas Pavon and Moncho had high mean performance for flag leaf area. These parents could be used as donors in future breeding to develop a physiologically efficient wheat genotype with high production. The crosses Moncho × Brochis and Durgapura 65 × Raj 821 were the most desirable specific combinations for flag leaf area and Kharchia 65 × Chiroca for both the traits. Desirable transgressive segregants can be expected from these crosses. Diallel selective mating or bi-parental crossing could be useful for the genetic improvement of these physiological traits.
A new wheat variety resistant to cereal cyst nematode (CCN), CCNRV 1 (Raj Molya Rodhak 1), was developed from two genetically diverse cultivars in a single cross (J 24/AUS 15854). This variety exhibited a higher level of productivity in both CCN-infested and normal soils, with increases in the grain and straw yields of 78.7% and 60.1%, respectively, over Raj 3077 in infested soils. It also gave 19.0% higher yield than local varieties under timely-sown irrigated conditions in normal soils. It possesses superior grain quality along with other desirable agronomic traits. Genetically it carries a dominant gene for CCN resistance. It is a robust and reliable wheat variety that offers a high degree of resistance against nematodes in warmer areas of Rajasthan. It was recommended for timely-sown, irrigated conditions in CCN-infested areas of Rajasthan by the State Seed Sub-Committee on Crop Standards, Notification and Release of Varieties in September 2002. It is envisaged that this variety will help to boost wheat production and alleviate the socio-economic problems of subsistent Indian farmers in CCN-infested areas.