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Hair as a monitor for environmental pollution

Variations in element concentrations for different lead-processing workers and different washing methods of their hair

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Author: S. Ohmori

Abstract  

Variations in concentration of elements with different washing methods of hair-EDTA Method and Acetone Method-and different lead work employees (lead processing workers and lead glass-making workers) were studied by nondestructive neutron activation analysis. The EDTA Method removed not only the external, elements bound by surface adhesion but also the internal elements, such as Mg and Ca, existing in hair. With the Acetone Method, Zn, As and Sb concentrations in hair of lead processing workers show very high values (>2) and Cd and Co concentrations in hair of both groups show high values (1<<2), except for Pb. This suggests the effect of environmental pollution in that factory.

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Abstract  

For the purpose of studying the secretion of exogenous toxic metals into hair, relation between their concentrations in hair and those in organs, and the metal shift, Hg or Mn was orally administered to guinea pigs for protracted periods, the distributions of metals in hair and organs were examined by means of neutron activation analysis. It was found that the administration of Hg at high dose resulted in abnormally high Hg levels in hair from the 2nd dosing week and in organs after 25 week dosing, and in a reduced motor activity after 25 week administration. There occurred metal shifts in hair as well. Administration of Mn at high doses, on the other hand, showed no such biological influences, although a dose-dependent increase of Mn in hair was detected with time.

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Abstract  

In this study, we aimed to recognize the body abnormalities through determining the metallic balance of hair. We determinated multiple elements of patients hair with acute chromium poisoning by burn from the worst clinical condition to complete recovery. Elements determined were Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Se, V and Zn by mondestractive neutron activation analysis. Comparing the clinical findings of a patient with acute chromium poisoning and metallic balance of his hair, we demonstrated that the metallic balance returned to the normal range with recovery from sickness, which suggested a promising possiblity to utilize this as one parameter indicative of clinical state.

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Abstract  

Human hair collected from the mercury, arsenic and cadmium polluted areas has been analysed by instrumental neutron activation method. The concentrations of 27 elements were compared with those of normal Japanese. Correlation coefficients of logarithmic concentrations between the elements were calculated and their significance levels were determined. Factor contribution and factor loadings of the elements were calculated for each factor by making use of principal component analysis. The factor score of each sample was also calculated for each factor to examine the effects of the contamination by heavy metals on individuals.

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Abstract  

To investigate the present situation of inhabitants living in the cadmium polluted area of Toyama Prefecture of Japan, 95 hair samples were analyzed by neutron activation method. The median and the geometric standard deviation were determined from a cumulative frequency distribution curve of the elemental concentrations for each of 3 groups: male, female without perm and female with perm which were divided furthermore by two age ranges: 20 age<50 and 50 age. These concentrations were compared with those in some organs and urine reported.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: N. Ando, S. Tasaki, Y. Hato, C. Marumo, Y. Natsume, S. Ohmori, A. Ito, and K. Tanaka

Abstract  

The polyacenic semiconductive (PAS) material is a typical amorphous carbon prepared by pyrolysis of phenolformaldehyde resin, and is actually utilized as anode of high-capacity rechargeable batteries. In this work, change in the discharging amount of Li+ before and after heat-treatment of the PAS electrodes at the various doping level was examined in detail. As a result, the doped Li can be classified into two types: (i) heat-resistant Li-dopant (or Li-dopant with high diffusion coefficient) and (ii)heat-fragile Li-dopant (or Li-dopant with low diffusion coefficient). The latter Li-dopants are generated above the doping level of 30% ([Li]/[C]→0.3) and is considered to be the origin of high-capacity of PAS anode compared with that of graphite anode. This aspect is also supported by the ESR, 7Li-NMR, and XPS observation results.

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Abstract  

A new radiochemical group separation method using APDC reagent in the extraction procedure has been developed. The method has been applied to the radiochemical separation for activated biological samples and also to the preconcentration technique for sea water samples. The transition elements are extracted into chloroform phase from the pH 3.0 aqueous phase and only manganese is subsequently extracted from the pH 7.0 aqueous phase. The validity of the method is demonstrated by analyzing the NBS standard reference materials. In the specimens preconcentrated from the sea water samples adjusted pH to 5.5, vanadium, manganese, copper and zinc can be determined.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: S. Ohmori, H. Tsuji, Y. Kusaka, T. Takeuchi, T. Hayashi, J. Takada, M. Koyama, H. Kozuka, M. Shinogi, A. Aoki, K. Katayama, and T. Tomiyama

Abstract  

With the aim of indicating environmental pollution effects by heavy metals on humans using hair, nondestructive activation analysis was applied to 382 normal Japanese hair samples (background level). Elemental contents of hair could be determined for Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ti, V and Zn. As these elements in hair have wide concentration ranges, the differences in concentrations distribution between groups (sex, age, permanent treatment and regional difference) are discussed. A method for hair sampling is presented.

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