Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a key role in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. The exchange of genetic material supplies prokaryotes with several fitness traits enhancing their adaptive response to environmental changes. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) represent an important and in most cases already immobilized subset of the different vehicles for HGT. Encoding several virulence factors PAIs represent a major contribution to bacterial pathogenicity. Nonetheless, the transfer mechanisms of PAIs still remain elusive. We summarise the currently available data regarding the major ways of genetic mobilisation with a focus on the transfer of the
High-Pathogenicity Island (HPI).
The medical research output of eleven mid-size countries were compared with the aid of scientometric indicators. Papers published by clinical medicine journals and those of professors working at clinical faculties were used for comparison. The professors proved to be more productive authors than average scientists of the same country, but no particular eminence of the professors could be revealed. A correlation was found between the quality of clinical medicine papers (as reflected by their relative citation rate) and the infant mortality of the countries in question.
Significant correlations were found between the number of science journal editors from different countries, on the one hand, and the number of scientists, the number of science journals and the number of science papers produced by these countries on the other. We argue for using the extent of participation in the editorial board of international science journals as a new science indicator. The deviations from the regression lines between the new indicator and other publication indicators allow one to assess the open or closed character of the scientific life of a given country.
A significant correlation was found between the mean number of citations to the editors of international chemistry journals and the impact factor of the journals in question. A much weaker correlation was found if citations to the editor(s)-in-chief only were considered; this suggests that the professional profile of the journal is determined by the editorial board rather than the person of the editor(s)-in-chief. The number of citations to the editors of international chemistry journals may be used for characterizing a country's chemical research activity.
International scientific meetings represent important channels for communicating research results. Based on data from more than 500 proceedings of scientific meetings, organization and participation patterns of several countries (or geopolitical regions) were analyzed. Some new indicators were derived and proved to be useful in characterizing the scientific activity of the countries. Particularly, the open and closed nature of national scientific communities, as well as attraction and repulsion between certain pairs of countries could be revealed by this method.
A number of advantages of nanostructured materials over bulk materials and their potential applications in many scientific
and technological fields have been revealed in recent years. To find out the main growth and trends of this exciting new scienence
and technology fields the growth rate of the nano-prefixed terms in the title of journal papers has been measured. It has
been shown that the investigations dealing with graphite nanotubes represent kinetically the most active field of research
in the nanosciences.
Authors:A. Schubert, S. Zsindely, A. Telcs, and T. Braun
Book reviews are practically unique in being public, visible manifestations of the peer review process. Two hundred reviews of 39 books on chemical topics were subjected to statistical context analysis. Dominance of attitudes, consensus among reviewers, correlation between the reviewers' evaluations and the subsequent citation rate of the reviewed book were analysed.