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Abstract  

Indoor natural radiation dose existing in dwellings of Coonoor have been estimated using thermoluminescent dosimeters. TLDs are displayed in indoors and are replaced after three-month period. The seasonal averages of the dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent are calculated from the measured results. Geographical and seasonal variations as well as the differences between indoor to outdoor dose rates have also been studied. Very good correlation exists between the indoor dose rates measured by TLD and environmental radiation dosimeter with correlation coefficient of 0.91. The annual effective dose equivalent to the Coonoor population due to indoor gamma radiation was estimated to be 970 mSv/y for the period of 1997–1998.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
N. Manikandan
,
S. Selvasekarapandian
,
R. Sivakumar
,
V.M. Raghunath
,
V.M. Sundaram
, and
S. Santhanam

Abstract  

Measurement of concentration of radon and thoron daughter products in various indoor environment covering four seasons of a year in Udagamandalam Taluk of Nilgiris biosphere has been carried out using a high volume air sampler to asses the inhalation dose to the population which delivers higher dose than the radon and thoron gas alone. The potential alpha-energy concentrations of the radon and thoron progeny ranged from 0.97 to 12.72 mWL and from 1.63 to 15.83 mWL with a geometric mean of 6.02 and 7.89 mWL, respectively, taking all seasons into account. These measurements have yielded a wealth of data on the variation among the indoor radon and thoron progeny in various places during different seasons. The radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in winter seasons and are less in summer season with autumn and spring data lie in between winter and summer. Using the dose conversion factor for indoor exposures given in UNSCEAR 93 report the internal equivalent dose to the inhalation of radon progeny is evaluated to be 1357 mSv.y–1 and the corresponding annual effective dose equivalent value has been found to be 2.13 mSv.y–1. It can be observed that the mean value of radon is higher than the Indian average. Also it is found the radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in the case of houses built with rock and granite and in tiled type houses of nearly 100 years old. The levels are less in the case of houses built with brick and cement. The observed results for different types of houses and seasons are discussed in this paper.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
S. Selvasekarapandian
,
R. Sivakumar
,
N. Manikandan
,
V.M. Ragjunath
,
V. Kannan
, and
S. Rajaram

Abstract  

The gas collection measurement method was employed to determine radon activity concentrations in the water of Coonoor. Open well water, dam water and stream water have been investigated for their radon concentrations. It is observed that the highest radon concentration is in the open well water and the lowest in stream water. From these measurements, the corresponding annual effective ingestion dose is determined.

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Abstract  

The systematic study of background radiation and the distribution of radionuclides in the environment of Nilgiris biosphere in South India, have been carried out with an objective of establishing reliable baseline data on the background radiation level of the region. Soil samples have been collected at various places of Kotagiri taluk in Nilgiris biosphere and are analyzed for radioactivity measurements of primordial radionuclides by 3"×3" NaI(TI) gamma-ray spectrometer. It is observed that the average activity of 232Th series, 238U series and 40K in soil samples is found to be 102 Bq.kg–1, 41 Bq.kg–1 and 229 Bq.kg–1, respectively which contributes to a total gamma-dose of 86 nGy.h–1. Results of this systematic investigation establish the existence of wide range of variation in 232Th series, 238U series and 40K activities, which may be attributable to the existence of wide variety of lithological compounds in the zone under study. The ambient gamma-radiation dose measured is found to vary from 91 to 193 nGy.h–1 with a mean of 142.8 nGy.h–1. The measured ambient gamma-dose is more than 50% of the dose calculated from soil activities, which is due to the higher cosmic ray contribution to the total dose in the environment. The data is compared with different places around the world and the results are discussed in this paper

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
G. Brahmanandhan
,
J. Malathi
,
D. Khanna
,
S. Selvasekarapandian
,
N. Nidhya
,
R. Usharani
,
M. Jose
, and
V. Meenakshisundaram

Abstract  

Samples of natural and manufactured building materials used by the people of Gobichettipalayam town have been analyzed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using gamma-ray spectrometry. Radium equivalent activity of the materials has been measured using the formula given by OECD and the geometric mean value of sand, clay and cements are found to be 53.53 Bq·kg−1, 89.09 Bq·kg−1 and 72.25 Bq·kg−1, respectively. The radium equivalent activities obtained in the building materials are all well below the acceptable limit. The indoor gamma-dose has been measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters and it was found in the range of 1051.2–3946.0 μGy/year. The annual effective indoor gamma radiation dose to the people of Gobichettipalayam town has been found to be 0.8 mSv/y.

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Abstract  

The terrestrial gamma-radiation in soil and sand samples collected around Kudankulam nuclear power plant site, i.e., in Radhapuram Taluk of Tirunelveli District has been measured using NaI(T1) gamma-ray spectrometer. In the soil samples total dose due to three primordial radionuclides lies in the range of 13.1–168.2 nGy/h with a geometric mean of 137.2 nGy/h, which yields an annual effective dose of 0.17 mSv/y. In the sand samples the total dose due to three primordial radionuclides has been found to be in the range of 38.1–1964.4 nGy/h with a geometric mean of 300.8 nGy/h, which gives an annual effective dose of 0.37 mSv/y which is well below the permissible limit (1 mSv).

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
J. Malathi
,
S. Krishnaveni
,
G. Brahmanandhan
,
D. Khanna
,
S. Selvasekarapandian
,
V. Meenakshisundaram
,
V. Gajendran
,
R. Mathiyarasu
, and
R. Santhanam

Abstract  

The activity concentration and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K) have been determined for the soil of Coimbatore city using NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The average activity concentrations of 232Th, 238U and 40K in the soil samples have been found to be 31.4 Bq·kg−1, 12.8 Bq·kg−1 and 698.0 Bq·kg−1, respectively, which give the total gamma dose rate contribution of 56.4 nGy·h−1. Grab sampling technique has been used to determine the indoor radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) progeny levels in different dwellings in the city. The concentrations of radon and thoron progenies range from 0.4 to 10.4 and from 0.7 to 12.7 mWL with a mean value of 1.4 mWL and 3.1 mWL, respectively. The annual effective dose due to radon and thoron progeny has been found to be 0.14 mSv·y−1.

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