The suitability of silica gel for the concentration of small quantities of palladium (20 μg in 500 ml) and zinc (5 μg in 500
ml) by a quick and simple method has been demonstrated. It has been found that the metals are taken up completely from their
dilute solutions by silica gel, but the quantity of silica gel has to be increased with increasing volume of the solution
containing the trace metals. Complete elution (desorption) of the deposited ions has been carried out with a dilute hydrochloric
acid solutiion. The eluted palladium and zinc have been determined spectrophotometrically and radiometrically, respectively.
A rapid procedure is described for the separation and determination of 0.025 mg to 1.0 mg quantities of As(V), V(V), Mo(VI)
and W(VI) from small quantities of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) using silica gel as the selective sorbent for the cations. The
individual anionic components, which remain in the supernatant solution after separation from the cations, are determined
by colorimetric methods. The complete recovery of As(V) in supernatant solution has also been tested radiometrically using76As as the radioactive indicator. The sorbed cations after extraction with dilute hydrochloric acid are determined by EDTA
A field experiment was carried out during the rainy (kharif) season of 2001 at the experimental farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India, to study the effect of date of transplanting and nitrogen on yield attributes, yields, nutrient accumulation and nitrogen use efficiencies in hybrid and non-hybrid aromatic rice. The experiment consisted of 9 treatments with 2 varieties (Pusa Basmati 1 and Pusa Rice Hybrid 10), 3 transplanting dates (3, 10 and 17 July, 2001) and 4 nitrogen levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg N ha-1). Pusa Rice Hybrid 10 had significantly higher values of yield attributes (panicles hill-1, panicle weight, spikelets panicle-1, filled grains panicle-1, 1000-grain weight), yields and nutrient accumulation than the non-hybrid Pusa Basmati 1. There were significant reductions in yield attributes, yields and nutrient accumulation after delayed transplanting. Timely transplanting on 3 July led to 8.4 and 19.1% higher grain yield than transplanting on 10 and 17 July, respectively. Successive nitrogen levels had a significant effect on yield attributes (except 1000-grain weight), yields and nutrient accumulation up to 120 kg N ha-1. The maximum grain yield (5.87 t ha-1) was recorded at the highest level of N nutrition (180 kg Nha-1) and was 4.2, 15.5 and 39.3% higher than in the 120 kg, 60 kg N ha-1 and control treatments, respectively. Pusa Rice Hybrid 10 also had significantly higher values of agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE) (12.5 kg grain kg-1 N applied), apparent nitrogen recovery (27.4%), physiological NUE (44.2 kg grain kg-1 N uptake), N harvest index (62.7%), N efficiency ratio (119.6 kg dry matter kg-1 N uptake) and physiological efficiency index of nitrogen (47.4 kg grain kg-1 N uptake) than non-hybrid Pusa Basmati 1.
The chemical effects of56Mn-recoils following neutron capture produced in mixed crystals /KMnO4–LiClO4, KMnO4–NaClO4 and KMnO4–KClO4/ have been investigated. A linear increase of initial retention with the mol fraction of perchlorate was observed which is tentatively ascribed to the tendency to form species having structures similar to that of the host matrix. The ultimate chemical fate of the manganese atom also depends on the conditions of the immediate chemical environment of the atoms /e.g. Li, Na, K/ at rest in the crystal. The results are discussed in terms of retention and non-retention reactions invoking a mechanistic model involving metal and ligand-vacancy exchange, substitution and transfer reactions.
Fractional precipitation techniques have been utilized to separate the lower valent and parent forms of56Mn in permanganate targets and an attempt is made to study a few aspects of chemical stabilization of recoil56Mn in permanganates. Ammonium permanganate, recoil behaviour of which has not been studied previously, is chosen as one of the targets along with the potassium permanganate for initial retention and also for isothermal annealing.56Mn initial retentions of about 12% and about 4% are obtained for potassium and ammonium permanganate, respectively, by activation from a Ra–Be neutron source. A usual trend for KMnO4 and the reduction of recoil fragments by ammonium ions in NH4MnO4 are seen through the isothermal annealing study.
Investigations on isochronal annealing behaviour of /n, / activated56Mn recoils in crystalline potassium and ammonium permanganates have given different results indicating a varying degree of sensitivity of the samples to recoil annealing. The presence of ammonium ion in ammonium permanganate shows the reduction of recoil species during annealing. Vand-Primak model has been utilized to deduce the kinetic behaviour by which the energy of activation is found to be 1.1 and 1.2 eV for KMnO4 and NH4MnO4, respectively. Furthermore, the present work reveals the role of defects in the transient reactions of the lattice stable precursors and hence the mechanism of the recoil reactions.