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  • Author or Editor: S. Singhal x
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Abstract  

Transition metal dithiocarbamate complexes, [M(S2CN(C2H5)(CH2CH2OH)] (M=Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis and infrared spectra. Thermal decomposition of all the complexes occurs in two or three stages. The first stage in all the complexes is always fast with 65-70% mass loss. In all cases the end product is metal oxide except in the case of cobalt complex which gives Co metal as an end product. During decomposition of copper complex, first CuS is formed at ~300C which is converted into CuSO4 and finally CuO is formed. However, decomposition in helium atmosphere yields CuS. SEM studies of transition metal dithiocarbamates reveal needle shape crystalline phase at room temperature and formation of metal sulphide/oxide at higher temperatures. The activation energy varies in a large range of 33.8-188.3 kJ mol-1, being minimum for the Cu complex and maximum for the Zn complex possibly due to d 10 configuration. In the case of Ni, Zn and Cd complexes the order of reaction is two suggesting bimolecular process involving intermolecular rearrangement. However, in other cases it is a unimolecular process. Large negative values of ΔS # for all the complexes suggest that the decomposition process involves rearrangement.

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Abstract  

The purpose of the present study is the association of natural uranium in seawater with colloidal and suspended-particulate matter was determined. The separation of suspended particulate material (>0.45 µm) and colloidal fraction (as dissolved fractions) in seawater were done by suction and ultra filtration techniques. Seawater samples were collected at 1 km away from the shore and subjected to sequential fractionation in nine stages ranging from 2.7 µm to 1.1 nm. Suspended particulate matter were separated in three different size groups namely >2.7 µm, <2.7–>0.45 µm and <0.45–>0.22 µm by suction filtration using cellulose acetate and nitrate membranes filters. To concentrate the solution with colloidal particles <0.22 µm–1.1 nm (0.5 k Nominal Molecular Weight cut-off Limit {NMWL}), the solution obtained from filtration through <0.22 µm was passed through stirred ultra-filtration cell. The pH and conductivity at different stages of fractionation (dissolved) showed minor variations. The concentration of uranium was measured in suspended and dissolved fractions by using a pulsed nitrogen laser at 337.1 nm. In order to evaluate the role of mineral colloids in various stages of filtration, concentration of calcium, magnesium, potassium were measured by using ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. The clay mineral at seawater pH (approximately 8) behave as negative ions and provides binding site for the positively charge species of uranium. Among the dissolved fraction, the maximum concentrations of colloidal uranium was observed about 4 times higher than that compared to average concentration of 6.93±3.10 ppb in other fractions. In the case of suspended particulate matter, the concentration of uranium was below detection limits (<1 ppb). The maximum concentration of Ca, Mg and K in the dissolved fraction were in the <1.1 nm fraction, while for suspended particulate matter, the concentration of Ca, Mg and K decreased with the decrease in size and it is highest in the fraction of 0.22 –0.45 µm.

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