Current status on the chemical aspects of nuclear fuel reprocessing is presented with special emphasis on the Purex process which continues to be the process of choice for the last four decades. Better decontamination from fission products, new methods for uraniumplutonium partitioning and removal of actinides from high active waste are challenging areas in process chemistry. The development work on TRUEX and DIAMEX process for treating high active waste is briefly described. An overview of pyrochemical processes, which are important for Integral Fast Reactor Concept, is presented.
Combining ability and heterosis were calculated for fourteen lines of linseed in a line × tester mating design using twelve lines and two diverse testers in two different environments. The hybrids and parental lines were raised in a completely randomized block design with three replications to investigate seed and fibre yield and their component traits. Genetic variation was significant for most of the traits over environments. Combining ability studies revealed that the lines KL-221 and LCK-9826 were good general combiners for seed yield and most of its components, whereas LMH-62 and LC-2323 were good general combiners for yield components only. Moreover, KL-221 was also a good general combiner for fibre yield. Similarly, B-509 and Ariane were good general combiners for fibre yield and most of its components. Among the specific cross combinations, B-509 × Flak-1 was outstanding for seed yield per plant and B-509 × KL-187 and LC-2323 × LCK-9826 for fibre yield per plant, with high SCA effects. In general, the hybrids excelled their respective parents and the standard checks for most of the characters studied. Based on the comparison of mean performance, SCA effects and the extent of heterosis, the hybrids LC-2323 × LCK-9826 and B-509 × KL-221 appeared to be the most promising for both seed and fibre yield. Other promising combinations were LC-2323 × KL-210 and B-509 × Ariane for seed and fibre yield, respectively. The superiority of LC-2323, LCK-9826, KL-221, B-509 and Ariane as good general combiners was further confirmed by the involvement of these parents in the desirable cross combinations.
Prolonged incubation of Azolla pinnata in phosphorus deficient medium resulted in the highest relative growth on 4th day but it ceased after 12th day. There was a decrease in heterocyst frequency of Anabaena azollae (endosymbiont) with prolonged incubation in such medium. The cyanobiont did not differentiate akinetes during the course of 16-days of incubation. Anthocyanin content and total proteins dropped in phosphorus starved Azolla plants. However, tissue phosphorus increased up to 8th day and decreased thereafter. Activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases elevated up to 12th day and declined afterward in phosphorus deprived Azolla. This investigation clearly reflected that Azolla pinnata sustained its growth and metabolic activities in -P conditions during early period of growth (up to 8th day) and further prolongation of phosphorus starvation resulted in appearance of phosphorus deficiency symptoms that can act as indicators of phosphorus deficiency in the water fern, Azolla pinnata.
Authors:N. Sharma, A. Sood, S. Bhatt and S. Chaudhry
The thermal decomposition of the complexes [Vcl (acac)2(OAr)] (where acac=2,4-pentanedionato anion; OAr=–OC6H4O-M-4, OC6H4OBut-4) has been studied using non-isothermal techniques (DTA and TG). The TGA indicate that the substitution of chlorine
in VCl2(acac)2 with aryloxide ligands results in an increase in the initial temperature of decomposition (IDT) of the new complexes. The role of the substituent at the aryloxide ring on the thermal stability of the complexes is depicted
and hence described. The ultimate decomposition product in all the complexes has been identified as V2O5. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters namely, the energy of activation E, the frequency factor A, entropy of activation S and specific reaction rate constant kr etc. have been rationalized in relation to the bonding aspect of the aryloxide ligands.
Authors:R. Prasanna, A. Sood, A. Suresh, S. Nayak and B. Kaushik
A wide variety of pigments, like chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, which exhibit colours ranging from green, yellow, brown to red are present in algae. Increasing awareness of harmful effects of synthetic dyes and inclination of society towards the usage of natural products, such as plant / microbial based colours in food and cosmetics, has led to the exploitation of microalgae as a source of natural colours. Algal pigments have great commercial value as natural colorants in nutraceutical, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, besides their health benefits.
capsules are now commonly prescribed health foods for improving vitality and longevity of human beings. This review describes the distribution, structure of these pigments in algae, with emphasis on specific techniques for extraction and purification, along with different methods of biomass production and commercially feasible techniques documented in literature. An overview of the industrial applications of these natural colouring agents in diagnostics, food and cosmetics industry is also provided.
Authors:Ashok Kumar, Ashoke Deb, S. Mukerjee, V. Vaidya and D. Sood
Solvent extraction of plutonium(VI) from nitric acid (1 to 5M) into 20% and 30% TBP in dodecane saturated with uranium(VI)
(0% to 80%) has been studied. For a particular nitric acid concentration, the distribution coefficient (Kd) is found to decrease with the increase in saturation of organic phase with uranium(VI). At a fixed organic phase the saturationKd increased with increase in nitric acid concentration, however, the magnitude of this increase inKd decreased with the increase in saturation.