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Summary  

Excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural Te were investigated up to 18 MeV. Cross sections for production of 121,123,124,126,128,130gI and 121gTe were measured. The new experimental data were compared with the results of ALICE-IPPE model calculations and with data found in the literature and measured on natural or enriched Te targets. The new data can be effectively used for validation of recommended cross sections of medically relevant 123I and 124I.

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Today, companies have to face new challanges because of the globalization, new technologies, globalization of markets and increasing competition. In this accelerated world, it is essential that the companies adapt to the market, which is only available through the necessary information. The importance of market research is undoubted. In our study we would like to prove that in case of a beginner company — in this case a confectionery — it is important to perform a market research like for a company in any other segment. To perform it, the qualitative market research methods were used. Our questionnaire examines several aspects in order to provide an indication of the company’s founding.

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Abstract  

Normal motor-oil was investigated by CPAA method using 12 and 18 MeV proton beams, which were extracted to the air. The samples were taken from the oil carter of a motor after different running times. The change of the amount of certain trace elements was detected with increasing time of use. By using this method the friction wear of the engine material can also be measured.

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Abstract  

The use of the 99Mo 99mTc generator in nuclear medicine is well established world wide. The production of the 99Mo (T1/2 = 66 h) parent as a fission product of 235U is largely based on the use of reactor technology. From the early 1990's accelerator based production methods to provide either direct produced 99mTc or the parent 99Mo, were studied and suggested as potential alternatives to the reactor based production of 99Mo. A possible pathway for the charged particle production of 99mTc and 99Mo is irradiation of molybdenum metal with protons via the reaction 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,pn)99Mo, respectively. The earlier published excitation functions show large differences in their maximum that result in large differences in the calculated yields. We therefore decided to study the excitation function for these proton-induced reactions. In this work the newly measured excitation functions as well as an evaluation of earlier measured data and a discussion of the observed disagreements are presented.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
F. Ditrói
,
F. Tárkányi
,
S. Takács
,
M. Uddin
,
M. Hagiwara
,
M. Baba
,
A. Ignatyuk
, and
S. Kovalev

Abstract  

Activation data of lead are of great importance due to the widespread applications of this element in various technological fields and to the well known adverse effects to biological systems. Use of high sensitivity radioanalytical techniques allows study of uptake, distribution and speciation. Cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on lead were measured up to 40 MeV using the standard stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Experimental cross sections and derived integral yields are reported for the natPb(d,xn)203,204,205,206,207Bi, natPb(d,x)203Pb202Tl reactions. Only one set of experimental cross section data was found in the literature. The experimental data are analyzed and compared with the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE and with the experimental integral yield reported in the literature.

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Abstract  

In the present work we demonstrate the development of a thin layer activation (TLA) method to be able to measure micrometer wear or less by using radioactive tracing. In order to activate very swallow depths we decreased the bombarding energy to the “linear” region of the cross-section curve. The disadvantage of the method is that the wear curve will be “linear” near to the surface instead of “constant” as is the case with the usual (high energy) TLA. The advantage is that the activity of the sample will be much lower and it is concentrated in the swallower studied depth. The other possible method is irradiation under small angle (15 to 30° or even grazing incidence), which also causes a near-surface concentration of the activity produced. Both methods are demonstrated with the most suitable nuclear reactions and some commonly used industrial materials.

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Abstract  

Excitation functions were measured by stacked-foil technique for the68Zn(p, 2n)67Ga,68Zn(p,3n)66Ga,natCu(p,xn)62Zn,natZn(p,xn)67Ga,natZn(p,xn)66Ga,natZn(p,px)62Zn andnatZn(p,αx)61Cu nuclear reactions in the energy range from 15–35 MeV. The experimental excitation functions were compared with published data. Our present measurements not only increase the number of available cross section data points for the above reactions, but for some reactions (and in some energy regions) values are presented for the first time.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
F. Ditrói
,
F. Tárkányi
,
S. Takács
,
I. Mahunka
,
J. Csikai
,
A. Hermanne
,
M. Uddin
,
M. Hagiwara
,
M. Baba
,
T. Ido
,
Yu. Shubin
, and
A. Dityuk

Abstract  

Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on Pd are important for medical radioisotope production, for activation analysis, for development of low activation materials and other purposes. No experimental data exist in the literature for low and medium energy range protons. A detailed study of the excitation functions was performed up to 80 MeV proton energy by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry. The irradiations were carried out at the external beam lines of the AVF cyclotron at the Tohoku University. Japan (80 and 70 MeV) and the CGR 560 cyclotron at the Vrije Universiteit Brussels (38, 29 and 17 MeV). The beam intensity, the incident energy and the energy degradation were controlled by a method based on flux constancy via normalization to the parallel measured excitation functions of natAl(p,x)22,24Na and natCu(p,x)56,58Co, 62,65Zn monitor reactions. Excitation functions for direct and cumulative cross sections have been measured for the production of 105mg,106m,110mAg, 101Pd, 101mRh and 97Ru radionuclei. Calculations for the excitation functions using the Alice-IPPE code were performed with a view to estimate the weight of the different contributing reactions and to check the trend and the magnitude of the obtained experimental data.

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