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  • Author or Editor: S. Wei x
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Abstract  

It was found that trace amount of various ions could be effectively adsorbed onto hydrous magnesium oxide from aqueous solution. Attempts were made to investigate the feasibility of using hydrous magnesium oxide as preconcentration agent for neutron activation analysis (NAA). The procedure was successfully applied for the measurements of trace amounts of elements in the surface water of a number of large rivers which play very important roles in the lives of local people. Some of them are polluted rather badly. In order to improve the living standards it is rather important to establish reliable analytical methods so that more effective surveillance may be enforced on pollution control problems. NAA is generally accepted as one of the most suitable methods for simultaneous and multielemental determination of trace amounts of elements. In this work polluted surface waters were investigated by NAA using Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR).

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Abstract  

We present a unified representation theorem for the class of all outer generalized inverses of a bounded linear operator. Using this representation we develop a few specific expressions and computational procedures for the set of outer generalized inverses. The obtained result is a generalization of the well-known representation theorem of the Moore--Penrose inverse as well as a generalization of the well-known results for the Drazin inverse and the generalized inverse AT,S (2). Also, as corollaries we get corresponding results for reflexive generalized inverses.

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Abstract  

In order to assure the public health, simple and relibable analytical methods must be established for effective surveillance of polluted surface water. Since the pollutants in surface water are usually found at ultratrace levels, preconcentration is generally required to ensure the quality of the analytical results. An analytical procedure consisting of preconcentration using hydrous magnesium oxide followed by neutron activation analysis has been proposed and applied to the determinations of trace elements in surface water.

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Summary  

The feasibility of measuring picogram levels of actinides in a urine matrix using ion chromatography coupled on-line to an inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer (IC-Q-ICPMS) was investigated. A chelation column for separation of matrix ions and preconcentration of the actinides was combined with a cation-exchange column for separation of the actinides. Sample preparation required simple addition of ammonium acetate to adjust the pH of the urine matrix. Spike solutions containing 232 Th, 237Np, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am were added to undiluted urine, diluted urine (1 : 9) and water. Results showed that this approach enhanced the signal sensitivities of all the tested actinides over two orders of magnitude in the water matrix, while certain elements (especially Am) can still be effectively concentrated in undiluted urine.

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Abstract  

Elemental content of twenty medicinal plants used as tonic and for treatment of diabetes and simusitis were determined by INAA and XRF. Elemental determination was carried out in the raw samples, residues after boiling and the water soluble fractions. Samples were irradiated in TRIGA MkII reactor and counted using HPGe detector coupled to Personal Computer Analyzer (PCA) system. Bowen's Kale, NBS Pine Needles, NBS Citrus Leaves SRM were analysed to check the accuracy of the techniques used. Twenty elements were determined by both NAA and XRF. Arsenic was only detected inLabisia pothoina andDracontomelon dao with a concentrations of 0.40 mg/kg and 0.60 mg/kg respectively. Antimony was found in eleven samples with a concentration of <0.20 mg/kg. Al, Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, Na and Rb were detected in all samples whereas Mg and Zn were present in all samples exceptCinnamomum sp. Highest concentration of Br (190 mg/kg), Cl (11805 mg/kg), Co (0.50 mg/kg), Fe (1642 mg/kg), K (36788 mg/kg), Mn (325 mg/kg), Na (126 mg/kg), Rb (197 mg/kg), Sc (0.18 mg/kg) and Zn (3551 mg/kg) were observed in the tuber ofLasia aculeata. Less than 70% and 50% of the elements contained inCallicarpa longifolia andEurycoma longifolia were obtained respectively from water by boiling.

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A novel HMW-GS of Dx5** with slightly faster migration rate than that of Dx5, was found in a Tibet bread wheat landrace using SDS-PAGE. Moreover, Dx5** is the subunit with the fastest migration rate in Glu-Dx locus. The gene for this subunit was isolated and its sequence was obtained in the present study. This gene was very similar to Dx5 both in nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence. At the nucleotide sequence level, Dx5** different from Dx5 by the deletion of a 27 bp fragment and two nucleotide replacements at position 353(G/C) and 692(C/G), respectively. At the amino acid sequence level, Dx5** different from Dx5 by the deletion of a hexaploid (LGQGQQ) and a tripeptide (GQQ) repetitive motif and two amino acid replacements at position 118(C/S) and 231(A/G), respectively. These results suggested that the Dx5** was a derivation of Dx5 and was formed by replication slippage. Moreover, the specific cysteine (C) located at the beginning of the repetitive domain of Dx5, which proved to be critical for the end-use quality of wheat flours, was replaced by serine (S) in Dx5**.

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Abstract  

In this study, the diffusion behavior of cesium and selenium with 10−4M concentration in mudrock was studied by trough-diffusion tests and summarized in order to provide confidence on long-term performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories. The diffusion process of Cs and Se reached equilibrium after 60 and 500 days, respectively. Besides, it also displays that the distribution coefficients (K d) of Se in through-diffusion tests is higher than that of Cs in agreement with that obtained from the batch method. The K d value (15.14±1.99 mL/g) of Cs by diffusion techniques is equivalent to that of batch method (15.10±0.40 mL/g) because sorption of Cs was assumed to fast sorption step. However, the K d value of Se (137.58±12.20 mL/g) derived from the diffusion technique is higher than that from batch tests (76.72±2.96) and showed an obvious variation with K d of Cs. The difference of K d between diffusion and batch methods resulted from the fact that 14 days were not long enough to reach equilibrium or stable state in the batch method.

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Summary

To control the quality of Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz., a simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detector (PAD) was developed for both fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination. Four representative flavonoids, namely, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3,7-O-α-dirhamnopyranoside (II), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (III), and kaempferol-3-(4″-O-acetyl)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-r hamnopyranoside (IV) isolated from E. fortunei, were used as reference compounds and simultaneously determined by the validated HPLC method. The unique properties of the chromatographic fingerprint were validated by analyzing 11 batches of E. fortunei, E. japonicus, E. laxiflorus, E. myrianthus, and E. hamiltonianus samples. Our results revealed that the chromatographic fingerprint combined with similarity measurement could efficiently identify and distinguish E. fortunei from the other investigated Euonymus species.

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This paper develops an instrumental analytical approach for detection of fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oil samples using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD), and fluorescence detector (FLD). The GPC was used to remove triglycerides from edible oil samples. The extracted samples were then detected using UHPLC—DAD—FLD. In order to obtain good separation and high reproducibility, the UHPLC—DAD—FLD experimental condition was optimized. The PAHs including three groups of isomeric PAHs can be separated completely in 12 min using BEH Shield RP 18 column with a suitable gradient elution program. The mean recoveries were in the range of 73–110% with an acceptable reproducibility (RSD < 10%, n = 3). During real sample analysis, the method can decrease the chance of false positives with both DAD and FLD being used simultaneously. The results indicate that the approach is simple, easy, and acceptably reproducible, thereby showing great potential as a method for detection of fourteen PAHs contained in edible oil samples.

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